African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12400

Review

Genetic variation and DNA markers in forensic analysis

Imad Hadi Hameed*
  • Imad Hadi Hameed*
  • Department of Molecular Biology, Babylon University, Hilla City, Iraq.
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Mohammed Abdullah Jebor
  • Mohammed Abdullah Jebor
  • Centre of DNA Research, Babylon University, Hilla City, Iraq.
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Aamera Jaber Ommer
  • Aamera Jaber Ommer
  • Institute of medico-legal in Baghdad, Ministry of Health of Iraq, Iraq.
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Cheah Yoke4
  • Cheah Yoke4
  • Department of Biomedical Science, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.
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Haider K. Zadian
  • Haider K. Zadian
  • Department of Molecular Biology, Babylon University, Hilla City, Iraq.
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Ali H. Al-Saadi
  • Ali H. Al-Saadi
  • Department of Molecular Biology, Babylon University, Hilla City, Iraq.
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Muataz A. Abdulazeez
  • Muataz A. Abdulazeez
  • College of Medicine, University of Al- Nahrain, Iraq.
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  •  Received: 15 August 2013
  •  Accepted: 20 June 2014
  •  Published: 30 July 2014

Abstract

In this review, we highlighted the DNA markers and their applications in forensic medicine which included the study of genetic variation or polymorphism, markers for genetic variation, types of variation, diallelic polymorphisms (SNPs and Indels), haplotypes, autosomal short tandem repeat (STRs), Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STRs) and Y chromosome. This is a useful tool for tracing human evolution, analysis of Y-chromosomal microsatellite haplotypes in globally human populations, organization of the human mitochondrial genome, and mitochondrial coding region as a source for variability and interpretation of sequence data. The light has been focused and directed in this study to establish the basic forensic genetic information, knowledge, data and statistics which might be so ultimately helpful practically in forensic science and criminology and to let evaluate and present the DNA weight evidences in medico-legal institute and courts of law.

 

Key word: Applications, DNA markers, forensic, genetic variation, review.