African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12368

Article in Press

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST SALMONELLA TYPHI, SALMONELLA PARATYPHI A, B AND C, CLINICAL ISOLATES IN LAFIA, NIGERIA

Stanislaus Onyeberechiya Osuagwu?1; Ichor Tersagh Smart1; Oluma H.O.A2; Onyemaechi Adibe3

  •  Received: 26 May 2021
  •  Accepted: 15 October 2021
The aim of the research was to investigate the antibacterial activities and the phytochemical properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Mango (Mangifera indica) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves, on clinical isolates of Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi A, B and C, in Lafia, Nigeria. The agar well diffusion technique was used and the analyses were done in triplicates. At the highest aqueous and ethanolic extract concentration of 80 mg/ml, Salmonella typhi, showed inhibition zones of 29.4±0.1mm and 30.0±0.01mm respectively, while Salmonella paratyphi A, B and C, exhibited inhibition zones of 14.4±0.2 mm, 21.2±0.4 mm 13.4±0.1 mm and 18.0±0.03mm, 20.0±0.04mm, 21.0±0.04mm respectively. At aqueous and ethanolic lower extract concentration of 10mg/ml, Salmonella typhi, exhibited inhibition zones of 8.4±0.01mm and 9.0±0.1mm respectively, while Salmonella paratyphi A, B and C, showed inhibition zones of 9.5±0.01mm, 9.1±0.01mm, 6.2±0.01mm and 9.0±0.01mm, 9.0±0.01mm, 9.0±0.01mm respectively of Neem leaf extract. The MIC and MBC, of aqueous and ethanolic extracts against organisms were 2.5 and 5.0 mg/ml, respectively. The qualitative phytochemical results showed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids and saponins. Conclusively, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of studied medicinal plant exhibited bactericidal activities against all tested organisms, and this supports the claim by traditional medical practitioners and vendors of the use of the plants for the cure of typhoid fever. Further studies are recommended on the toxicity and safe dosage regimen of the plants since the infusion of the plant is taken orally by people for cure of typhoid fever.

Keywords: Salmonella Organisms, Typhoid fever, Phytochemical Constituents, Bacteria, Medicinal plants.