Synthetic dyes were discovered in 1856 and from then began the great production of synthetic organic dyes. Today in the market there are more than 100,000 commercially available dyes, with the majority of synthetic origin and many uses, among which are: the coloring and dyeing of textile materials, leather, plastic, food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics. The industry, after agriculture, is the productive sector that uses water to their processes, and is considered a major consumer and at the same time responsible for launching, often straight, their effluents into waterways. When considering that the textile industry is responsible for much of the economy of developed and developing countries, assesses that the large volume of production is also significant volume of waste (solid, liquid and gaseous) that it produces. These residues, originating from the cleaning, dyeing and finishing of the product, operations are responsible for the generation of a large amount of wastewater containing high organic load, sharp color and toxic to humans and the environment chemicals. Several chemical and physical-chemical treatments have been used in the treatment of these effluents, but biological treatments has attracted attention because it is less aggressive to the environment. Among the organisms of interest, highlight the fungi to be major producers of enzymes, mainly lignolytic complex, which make them able to mineralize various xenobiotic substances such as dyes. Furthermore, the micelle formation makes these organisms capable of adsorbing the molecules to withdraw them from the environment. A problem that must be taken into consideration when talking about degradation is the formation of secondary metabolites causing toxicity through. Therefore studies are necessary in order to understand how these substances behave in the environment and the risk that they may cause. Key-words: textile effluents, dyes, toxicity, biodegradability.
Keywords: Textile effluents, dyes, toxicity, biodegradability