African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12257

Article in Press

Epidemiology and Mobilization of Arsenic in India: Embark on Bioremediation

Ankur Bhardwaj1, Rakesh Kumar Sharma2, Gajendra B. Singh*

  •  Received: 05 August 2019
  •  Accepted: 18 September 2019
Arsenic (As) is foremost renowned threat for environment and societal well-being. Arsenic concentration is expanding at a disturbing rate in several countries. In nature, arsenic is present in combined state with metal ores and gets separated when anaerobic condition develops under the ground. People of affected regions are obliged to use arsenic contaminated water. Continuous use of As contaminated water causes cancer, skin wounds and other deformities in humans. The utmost pretentious are mining regions of India, as per government surveys and available research findings. Population residing near mining regions are bounded to consume arsenic tainted water in their routine life and evolve various hazardous health effects. Besides many physicochemical techniques at hand for its purification none are of much concern. The microbial mediated arsenic detoxification involving oxidation/reduction and extrusion by a membrane-associated efflux pump may perhaps financially acuity method for bioremediation. The ars ORF contains genes like, arsR, arsD and arsA along with arsB and arsC. Microorganisms have developed very crucial mechanism to encounter arsenic toxicity, which may possibly a promising remediation approach for arsenic. Recent years studies have determined As levels in foods and human samples evaluated As population exposure identifying potential sources. This study has been performed by personally reviewing the abandoned mining As contaminated sites and conversation with local residents about their day to day problems. We have witnessed may jaw dropping truths about As exposure risk to humans and domesticated animals, which has been discussed in this article. This review comprehensively summarizes current studies associated to arsenic exposure environmental dispersal and its bioremediation through arsenic metabolizing bacteria covering recent developments, pathways, action mechanism and understanding arsenic metabolizers with depiction of future prospects on arsenic bioremediation from contaminated systems.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Environment, Arsenic, Genes, ars operon, arsenate reductase, arsenite oxidase, Mining