African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12368

Article in Press

HEAVY METALS AND VITAMIN CONTENT OF “KUNUN-ZAKI” DRINK, PULP AND THEIR FREEZE-DRIED FORMS

Esienanwan Esien Efiong, Emmanuel Hala Kwon-Ndung, Abraham Ehinomhen Ubhenin, Jonathan Maduka Nwaedozie

  •  Received: 12 August 2020
  •  Accepted: 27 November 2020
Significant adverse health effects of certain heavy metals were reported in the dried samples of food. This study was aimed at evaluating vitamins, and heavy metals content of unsweetened/sweetened “kunun-zaki” drink/pulp, before/after lyophilizing. The material tested were unsweetened and sweetened “kunun-zaki” drink- UKD, and its pulp- UKP, sweetened “kunun-zaki” drink- SKD, and its pulp- SKP before and after lyophilisation. Vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B9, C, A, beta carotene, lycopene; sodium, potassium, calcium, chlorine, phosphorus, magnesium, cadmium, chromium, zinc, iron, manganese, copper, lead, and arsenic levels were analysed. Many micronutrients were within “Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON)/ World Health Organization (WHO)” permissible RDA limits. Only vitamin B9 in UKPL/SKPL was above its RDA. Among the essential metals, only sodium level of UKD was higher than its RDA. Chromium, arsenic, cadmium, lead, and iron were beyond their RDA mainly in the dried samples. Micronutrients were higher in sweetened, and lyophilized varieties compared with their unsweetened/un-lyophilized forms. This study confirmed presence of varied concentrations of vitamins, and heavy metals in ‘kunun-zaki” drink and pulp.

Keywords: “Kunun-zaki”; Vitamins; Minerals; Heavy metals; Freeze-dry; Cereals; Dates; Micronutrients; Lyophilize