Significant adverse health effects of certain heavy metals were reported in the dried samples of food. This study was aimed at evaluating vitamins, and heavy metals content of unsweetened/sweetened â€œkunun-zakiâ€ drink/pulp, before/after lyophilizing. The material tested were unsweetened and sweetened â€œkunun-zakiâ€ drink- UKD, and its pulp- UKP, sweetened â€œkunun-zakiâ€ drink- SKD, and its pulp- SKP before and after lyophilisation. Vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B9, C, A, beta carotene, lycopene; sodium, potassium, calcium, chlorine, phosphorus, magnesium, cadmium, chromium, zinc, iron, manganese, copper, lead, and arsenic levels were analysed. Many micronutrients were within â€œStandard Organization of Nigeria (SON)/ World Health Organization (WHO)â€ permissible RDA limits. Only vitamin B9 in UKPL/SKPL was above its RDA. Among the essential metals, only sodium level of UKD was higher than its RDA. Chromium, arsenic, cadmium, lead, and iron were beyond their RDA mainly in the dried samples. Micronutrients were higher in sweetened, and lyophilized varieties compared with their unsweetened/un-lyophilized forms. This study confirmed presence of varied concentrations of vitamins, and heavy metals in â€˜kunun-zakiâ€ drink and pulp.
Keywords: â€œKunun-zakiâ€; Vitamins; Minerals; Heavy metals; Freeze-dry; Cereals; Dates; Micronutrients; Lyophilize