¬This study reviews the introduction of the exotic breeds and cross breeding of local chicken in Ethiopia, treats of the genetic erosion and needs for conservation with aim of delivering in the short form and clear information for beneficiaries and to whom it may concern. Poultry production and its product consumption are progressively increasing globally. In Ethiopia, chicken production plays a great role as a primary supply of eggs and meat in rural and urban areas and as a source of income for smallholder farmers. The interest of the farmers to maximize poultry products is increasing. Therefore, the different parts of the farmers are practicing crossbreeding unsystematically. However, crossbreeding is not advised and recommended by government due to its impact on genetic diversity and losing of the important traits of local chickens; thus, policy of the government has prepared different strategies to improve livestock development. There is no good breeding scheme introduced so far to avoid such kind of impacts or else regulator laws to avoid uncontrolled breeding activities. Therefore, conservation of locally adapted indigenous livestock breeds has become an important objective in sustainable animal breeding, as these breeds represent a unique genetic resource. And even if the indigenous chickens are low in productive performance, it has its unique and important characteristics such as brooding, tolerance of the disease and harsh environment of tropics, and giving good product under management condition. Therefore, adjusting the proper breeding strategies in the country especially upgrading the local chicken for higher production through selective breeding system rather than cross breeding with exotic breeds and conservation of the genetic resource in needed.
Keywords: conservation, cross breeding, exotic and local chickens breed, genetic erosion, Ethiopia