African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12487

Article in Press

Parasites show no link to Hemisus guttatus (Hemisotidae) rare status, differential Heavy Metals Accumulation between them and Milvus migrans parasitus in a tropical terrestrial ecosystem

Echi, Paul Chinedu., Offia, Okoro Obasi., Okorie, Chidinma Comfort., Obeagu, Innocent Amaechi, Mba, Chinecherem Goodluck, and Ogenyi, Benjamin Chika

  •  Received: 07 December 2023
  •  Accepted: 25 January 2024
In Ikwoka, Southeast Nigeria Hemisus guttatus and Milvus migrans parasitus are good comparatively bio indicators due to non migration and occupation of different terrestrial environments during seasonal migrations respectively. Hemisus guttatus is rare while Milvus migrans parasitus is seasonally frequent. This study is to establish possible cause of Hemisus guttatus rare status between parasites and other environmental causes especially as the locals do not use it as a primary source of protein. In addition, to compare their accumulation of heavy metals in muscles with a flying species that does not always stay in the same environment. The samples were collected January 2017 to December 2022, yellow billed Kite (n = 10) with least percentage collection of 1(0.1) in 2021 and 2022 whereas Hemisus guttatus (n = 29), 16 males and 13 females collected singly with 8(27.58) in 2022 as highest percentage collection. These two vertebrates had no parasites found after body fluids, feaces and internal organs examination. Muscle tissues analysis for the presence of heavy metals using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) mg/kg, indicate no detection of As and Hg. Other elements are within safe ranges in Hemisus guttatus except Mn that is slightly close to permissible limit; Mn (1.72±0.28) mg/kg while much higher values were recorded in Milvus migrans parasitus; Mn (3.71±0.074) mg/kg above permissible limit and Pb (1.85±0.21) mg/kg approximately at permissible limit. Also, in West Africa, there have been little or no studies on the phylogeny of yellow-billed kites. Principally wide molecular approaches involving mitochondrial markers - cytochrome b (CytB) and cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) loci as well as ND2 Gene and Myc genetic analysis were used to support knowledge on their current phylogeny.

Keywords: yellow-billed kite, genetic relationship, heavy metals, Parasites, Hemisus guttatus, environment, Sub Saharan African