African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12267

Full Length Research Paper

Lipids of Amazon Caimans: A source of fatty acids

Augusto Kluczkovski Junior
  • Augusto Kluczkovski Junior
  • Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil.
  • Google Scholar
Alicia De Francisco
  • Alicia De Francisco
  • Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil.
  • Google Scholar
Luiz Beirao
  • Luiz Beirao
  • Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil.
  • Google Scholar
Ariane Kluczkovski
  • Ariane Kluczkovski
  • Federal University of Amazonas, Brazil.
  • Google Scholar
Heitor Barbosa
  • Heitor Barbosa
  • Instituto Federal de Amazonas – IFAM, Brasil.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 11 April 2016
  •  Accepted: 30 June 2016
  •  Published: 22 July 2016

References

Almeida NM, Visenteiner JV, Franco MRB (2008). Composition of total, neutral and phospholipids in wild and farmed tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) in the Brazilian Amazon area. J. Sci. Food Agric. 88:1739-1747.
Crossref

 

Almeida NM, Franco MRB (2007). Fatty acid composition of total lipids, neutral lipids and phospholipids in wild and farmed matrinxã (Brycon cephalus) in the Brazilian Amazon area. J. Sci. Food Agric. 87:2596-2603.
Crossref

 
 

Almeida NM, Franco MRB (2006). Influence of fish feeding diet on its fatty composition: nutritional aspects and benefits to human health. Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz 65:7-14.

 
 

AOAC (2005). Official methods of analysis (17th ed.). Gaithersburg, MD, USA: AOAC International.

 
 

Azevedo IC, Carmo RP, Torres AG, Marsico EI, Freitas MQ (2009). Acceptance test and percent composition of broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) canned meat. Ciênc. Rural. 39:534-539.
Crossref

 
 

Bauer DF (1972). Constructing confidence sets using rank statistics. J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 67:687-690.
Crossref

 
 

Canto ACVCS, Lima BRCC, Cruz AG, Lazaro CA, Freitas DGC, Faria JAF, Torrezan R, Freitas MQ, Silva TPJ. (2012). Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the color and texture parameters of refrigerated Caiman (Caiman crocodilus yacare) tail meat. Meat Sci. 91:255-260.
Crossref

 
 

Castelo FP (1981). Características da gordura cavitárias de pirapitinga, Colossoma bidens e pacu-caranha (Colossoma mitrei). Acta Amazonica. 11:255-265.

 
 

Cernıkova M, Gal R, Polasek Z, Janıcek M, Pachlova V, Bunka F (2015). Comparison of the nutrient composition, biogenic amines and selected functional parameters of meat from different parts of Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). J. Food Comp. Anal . 43:82-87.
Crossref

 
 

Conover WJ, Johnson ME, Johnson MM (1981). A comparative study of tests for homogeneity of variances, with applications to the outer continental shelf bidding data. Technometrics 23:351-361.
Crossref

 
 

Cossu ME, Gonzalez OM, Wawrzkiewicz, M, Moreno D, Vieite CM (2007). Carcass and meat characterization of "Yacare overo" (Caiman latirostris) and "Yacare negro" (Caiman yacare). Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. 44:329-336.

 
 

Da Silveira R, Magnusson WE (1999). Diets of Spectacled and Black Caiman in the Anavilhanas Archipelago, Central Amazonia, Brazil. J. Herpetol. 33:181-192.
Crossref

 
 

Da Silveira R, Thorbjarnanarson J (1999) Conservation implications of commercial hunting of black and spectacled caiman in the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, Brazil. Conservat. Biol. 88:103-109
Crossref

 
 

Folch J, Lees M, Stanley GH (1957). A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissue. J. Biol. Chem. 226:497-509.

 
 

Hartman L, Lago RC (1973). Rapid preparation of fatty acid methyl esters from lipids. Laboratory Pract. 22:475-476.

 
 

Hoffman LC, Fisher PP, Sales J (2000). Carcass and meat characteristics of the Nile Crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). J. Sci. Food Agric. 80:390-396.
Crossref

 
 

Hollander M, Wolfe DA (1999). Nonparametric Statistical Methods. 2 ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

 
 

Kaur N, Chugh V, Gupta AK (2014). Essential fatty acids as functional components of foods- a review. J Food Sci. Technol. 51:2289-2303.
Crossref

 
 

Kluczkovski Júnior A, Kluczkovski AM, Moroni FT, Markendorf F, Inhamuns A. (2015). Carcass Yield and composition of Melanosuchus niger. Intern. J. Fish. Aquact. 7:47-53.
Crossref

 
 

Martin CA, Almeida VV, Ruiz MR, Visentainer JEL, Matshushita M, Souza NE, Visentainer JV (2006). Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids: importance and occurrence in foods. Rev. Nutr. 19:761-770.

 
 

Mirghelenj SA, Golian A, Taghizadeh V (2009). Enrichment of chicken meat with long chain omega-3 fatty acids throught dietary fish oil. Res. J. boil. Sci. 4:604-608.

 
 

Mitchell GE, Reed AW, Houlihan DB (1995). Composition of crocodile meat (Crocodylus porosus and Crocodylus johnstoni). Food Australia. 47:221-224.

 
 

Moreira NX, Curi R, Mancini FJ (2002). Fatty acids: a review. Nutrire. 24:105-123.

 
 

Ohr L M (2005). Functional fatty acids. Food Technol. 59:63-65.

 
 

Öksüz A, Özyılmaz A (2010). Changes in Fatty Acid Compositions of Black Sea Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L. 1758) During Catching Season. Turk. J. Fish. Aq. Sci. 10:381-385.

 
 

Osthoff G, Hugo A, Govender D, Huchzermeyer F, Bouwman H (2014). Comparison of the lipid composition of three adipose tissue types of male and female wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus). J. Herpetol. 48:525-531.
Crossref

 
 

Osthoff G, Hugo A, Bouwman H, Buss P, Govender D, Joubert CC, Swarts JC (2010). Comparison of the lipid properties of captive, healthy wild and pansteatitis-affected wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 155:64-69.
Crossref

 
 

Paulino FO, Silva TJP, Franco RM, Marsico ET, Canto ACVC, Vieira JP, Amaral AP, Pereira AAS (2011). Processing and quality characteristics of hamburger of Pantanal alligator meat (Caiman crocodillus yacare). Rev. Bras. Cienc. Vet. 18:129-132.

 
 

Peplow A, Balaban M, Leak F. (1990). Lipid composition of fat trimmings from farm-raised alligators. Aquaculture 91:339-348.
Crossref

 
 

R Core Team. (2015). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. 

View.

 
 

Razali N, Wah YB (2011). Power comparisons of Shapiro-Wilk, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Lilliefors and Anderson-Darling tests. J. Stat. Modeling Anal. 2:21-33.

 
 

RIIRDC (2007). Composition of new meats, analyses and nutrient composition of innovative meat industries. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation Publication N. 07/036, Australia.

 
 

Romanelli PF, Felicio PE (1999). Jacaré do Pantanal (Caiman crocodilus yacare): Rendimentos de abate e composição da carne. Higiene Alimentar. 13:11-15.

 
 

Romanelli PF, Caseri R, Lopes Filho JF (2002). Meat processing of pantanal alligator (Caiman crocodilus yacare). Ciênc. Tecnol. Aliment. 22:70-75.
Crossref

 
 

Ross JP (2000). Melanosuchus niger. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2000: e.T13053A3407604. h
Crossref

 
 

Russo GL (2009). Dietary n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: From biochemistry to clinical implications in cardiovascular prevention. Biochem. Pharmacol. 77:937-946.
Crossref

 
 

Scherr C, Gagliardi ACM, Miname MH, Santos RD (2015). Fatty Acid and Cholesterol Concentrations in Usually Consumed Fish in Brazil. Arq. Bras. Cardiol. 104:152-158.

 
 

Simopoulos A (2016). An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity. Nutrients 8(3):128.
Crossref

 
 

Simopoulos A (2008).The omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio, genetic variation, and cardiovascular disease. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr. 17:131-134.

 
 

Siro I, Kapolna E, Kapola B, Lugasi A. (2008). Functional food. Product development, marketing and consumer acceptance--a review. Appetite. 51(3):456-467.
Crossref

 
 

Souza RV, Santos PCF, Bambirra EA, Vieira EC, Alvarez-Leite JI (2002). Nutritional Characteristics of Amazonian Fish Fat (Colossoma macropomum) and its effect on lipid metabolism of rats fed hypercholesterolemic diets. Ciênc. Tecnol. Aliment. 22:88-93.

 
 

Staton MA, Edwards Jr HM, Brisbih Jr IL, Joaneh T, Mchease L (1990). Fatty Acid Nutrition of the American Alligator (Alligator mississipiensis). J. Nutr. pp. 674-685.

 
 

USDA. US Department of Agriculture (2006). Agricultural Research Service, Nutrient Data Laboratory. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 19. Washington, DC: USDA.

 
 

Vicente Neto J, Bressan MC, Rodrigues EC (2007). Avaliação físico química da carne de jacaré-do-Pantanal (Caiman yacare Daudin 1802) de idades diferentes. Ciênc. agrotec. 31:1430-1434.
Crossref

 
 

Vicente Neto J, Bressan MC, Faria PB, Vieira JO, Santana MTA, Kloster M (2006). Composição centesimal e colesterol da carne de jacaré-do-Pantanal (Caiman yacare Daudin 1802) oriundo de zoocriadouro e habitat natural. Ciênc. Agrotéc. 30:701-706.
Crossref

 
 

Vicente Neto J, Bressan MC, Faria PB, Vieira JD, Cardoso MG, Glória MBA, Gama LT (2010). Fatty acid profiles in meat from Caiman yacare (Caiman crocodilus yacare) raised in the wild or in captivity. Meat Sci. 85:752-758.
Crossref

 
 

Wang C, Harris WS, Lichtenstein AH, Balk EM, Kupelnick B, Jordan HS, Lau J (2006). n-3 Fatty acids from fish or fish-oil supplements, but not α-linolenic acid, benefit cardiovascular disease outcomes in primary- and secondary-prevention studies: a systematic review 1–3. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 84:5-17.