African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12487

Table of Content: 16 October 2006; 5(20)

October 2006

Rapid genetic transformation of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) via organogenesis

An efficient and rapid Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method based on de novo (via callus) organogenesis has been developed from petioles with leaf for sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam). Stable transgenic sweetpotato plants cv. Jewel were obtained in six to ten weeks after infection with Agrobacteriumtumefaciens hyper-virulent strain EHA105 harboring a binary vector pCIP45 bearing...

Author(s): H. R. LUO, M. SANTA MARIA‡, J. BENAVIDES, D. P. ZHANG†, Y. Z. ZHANG and M. GHISLAIN

October 2006

Repeats in the 3' region of the protein A gene is unique in a strain of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from wound infections in Lagos, Nigeria

Bacterial strain typing has quite a lot of important applications in microbiology. In medical practice, strain typing is useful for diagnosis and determining strategies for treatment of infections. More essentially, it is considered for rapid identification of disease outbreaks and new virulent strains. In this study, Protein A gene (spa) short sequence repeats region sequencing was used to measure relatedness among a...

Author(s): Solayide A. Adesida, Yekaterina Likhoshvay, William Eisner, Akitoye Olusegun Coker, Olusegun A. Abioye, Folasade T. Ogunsola, Barry N. kreiswirth

October 2006

Two mini-preparation protocols to DNA extraction from plants with high polysaccharide and secondary metabolites

Methanol extracts of Tulbaghia violacea leaves and bulbs inhibited growth of MCF-7, WHCO3, HT29 and HeLa cancer cell lines. At 250 µg/ml, bulb extracts exhibited higher growth inhibition than leaf extracts in MCF-7 (49.6 ± 2.6%), HT29 (26.0 ± 4.5%) and HeLa cells (54.7±5.9%) relative to untreated controls. In WHCO3, the leaf extract was more active, inhibiting growth by 30.3 ±...

Author(s): C. Sánchez-Hernández and  J.C. Gaytán-Oyarzún

October 2006

Molecular variation in population structure of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv manihotis in the south eastern Nigeria

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv manihotis (Xam) is the causal agent of cassava bacterial blight (CBB) in all cassava growing areas of the world.  To develop an efficient disease management strategy, the genetic diversity of the pathogens population ought to be known.  Information is scarce on the genetic diversity ofXam population in Nigeria. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to...

Author(s): Ogunjobi A.A., Fagade O.E. and Dixon A.G.O.

October 2006

Fermentative production and kinetics of cellulase protein on Trichoderma reesei using sugarcane bagasse and rice straw

Cellulase a multienzyme made up of several proteins finds extensive applications in food, fermentation and textile industries. Trichoderma reesei is an efficient producer of cellulase protein. The comparative study was made on various carbon sources on the production of cellulase using strains of T. reesei QM 9414, 97.177 and Tm3. Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse and rice straw offers very...

Author(s): Muthuvelayudham, R. and Viruthagiri, T.

October 2006

Enhanced production of cellulases by various fungal cultures in solid state fermentation of cassava waste

Cellulases are a group of hydrolytic enzymes capable of degrading cellulose to the smaller glucose units. These enzymes are produced by fungi and bacteria.  The solid waste of sago industry using cassava tubers was fermented by Aspergillus niger,Aspergillus terreus and Rhizopus stolonifer in solid state fermentation. The cassava waste contained dry wt of 13.4% cellulose and 2.9% protein by dry...

Author(s): C. Pothiraj, P. Balaji and M. Eyini

October 2006

Growth and yield performance of some improved soybean varieties as influenced by intercropping with maize and cassava in two contrasting locations in Southwest Nigeria

Four improved varieties of soybean (TGX 1448-2E, TGX 1445-2E, TGX 1485-1D and TGX 1019-2E) were evaluated for growth and yield performance under intercropping system with maize and cassava at Ibadan and Oniyo in 2001 and 2002. Plant height at harvest, number of pods per plant, weight of 100 seeds and seed yield were used to assess the performance of improved varieties of soybean while grain yield and fresh tuber yield...

Author(s): Adeniyan, O. N. and Ayoola, O. T.

October 2006

Volatile constituents from Samanae saman (Jacq.) Merr. Fabaceae

In this work, we report on the constituents identified from the fruits volatile oil ofSamanae saman (Jacq.) Merr., Fabaceae. The volatile oil was obtained by hydrodistillation in an all glass Clevenger-type apparatus. The oil content was 0.23% (w/w), on a dry weight basis. The oil was analyzed by GC-MS. Altogether, 32 compounds were identified accounting for 99.7% of the total oil content. Fatty...

Author(s): Isiaka A. Ogunwandea, Tameka M. Walker, William N. Setzer and Emmanuel Essien

October 2006

Synergistic effects of some plant growth regulators on in vitro shoot proliferation of korarima (Aframomum corrorima (Braun) Jansen)

The synergistic effects of some plant growth regulators was investigated upon shoot proliferation and growth of korarima (Aframomum corrorima (Braun) Jansen), an important culinary and medicinal plant species native to Ethiopia. Cultures were initiated from axillary bud explants of rhizome using Murashige and Skoog (1962) (MS) medium added with 5% coconut water (CW). The use of 0.5 mg/l thidiazuron (TDZ) in...

Author(s): Wondyifraw Tefera and Surawit Wannakrairoj

October 2006

Affinity purification of hen egg lysozyme using sephadex G75

We found lysozyme binds Sephadex G75, a dextran-based matrix routinely used for Gel-filtration chromatography, in a pH dependent manner. The binding is rapid and specific in a buffer containing 25 mM NaCl at pH 8.0, and requires only 0.1 ml of swollen Sephadex G75 suspension per mg of lysozyme. The bound lysozyme can be eluted with NaCl concentration over 0.15 M in the same buffer in a relatively pure form....

Author(s): Rizwana Islam, , Jake Kite, Aaron S. Baker, , Alejandro Ching Jr. and M. Rafiq Islam

October 2006

Cyfluthrin-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

The hepatotoxic effect of continous administration of cyfluthrin was investigated in rats. Rats (Rattus norvegicus) were grouped into A (0 ppm) control, B (100 ppm) and C (200 ppm) with the indicated amount of cyfluthrin administered orally for 15 weeks.The hepatotoxicity level was assessed by monitoring the changes in the organ to body; weight ratio, micronutrient level (iron, zinc, copper and selenium), the...

Author(s): OMOTUYI I. O., OLUYEMI, K. A., OMOFOMA C. O., JOSIAH S. J. and SAALU, L. C.

October 2006

Aerobic cometabolic degradation of cis- and trans-dichloroethene by a consortium of bacteria isolated from contaminated sites in Africa

Biodegradation of dichloroethenes (DCEs) to innocuous products such as ethene and carbondioxide is often a limiting factor in the use of reductive dechlorination as an approach for the remediation of chloroethene-contaminated sites. In this study, the effect of some water-soluble, non-toxic and non-flammable substrates on the biodegradation of DCEs by a mixed culture of aerobic bacteria isolated from contaminated sites...

Author(s): Ademola O. Olaniran, Dorsamy Pillay, and Balakrishna Pillay

October 2006

Production of biological nanoparticles from bovine serum albumin for drug delivery

Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used for generation of nanoparticles in a drug delivery system. The size of the fabricated nano-particles was measure by laser light scanning. Several process parameters were examined to achieve a suitable size of nanoparticle such as pH, temperature, BSA concentration, agitation speed, glutaraldehyde concentration, organic solvent adding rate and the ratio of BSA/organic solvent. The...

Author(s): Rahimnejad M., M. Jahanshahi, G. D. Najafpour

October 2006

Free-radical scavenging capacity and antimicrobial activity of wild edible mushroom from Turkey

Antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activities of Ramaria flava (Tourn: Battarra) Quél. (RF) extracts obtained with ethanol were investigated in this study. Four complementary test systems; namely DPPH free radical scavenging, β-carotene/linoleic acid systems, total phenolic compounds and total flavonoid concentration have been used. Inhibition values of R....

Author(s): Gezer k, Duru ME, Kivrak I, Turkoglu A, Mercan N, Turkoglu H and Gulcan S

October 2006

Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Vitex doniana leaves

The anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of extract of leaves of Vitex donianaSweet (Verbenaceae) were investigated as well as the mechanisms of action. The extract significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the formation of paw edema induced by agar in rats and increased reaction latency to thermal pain in mice in a dose-dependent manner. The extract caused a significant (P<0.05) dose-dependent ulceration of the...

Author(s): Iwueke, A. V, Nwodo, O. F. C, Okoli, C. O

October 2006

Tulbaghia violacea inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in cancer cells in vitro

Methanol extracts of Tulbaghia violacea leaves and bulbs inhibited growth of MCF-7, WHCO3, HT29 and HeLa cancer cell lines. At 250 µg/ml, bulb extracts exhibited higher growth inhibition than leaf extracts in MCF-7 (49.6 ± 2.6%), HT29 (26.0 ± 4.5%) and HeLa cells (54.7±5.9%) relative to untreated controls. In WHCO3, the leaf extract was more active, inhibiting growth by 30.3 ±...

Author(s): Lelethu Bungu, Carminita L. Frost, S. Clint Brauns and Maryna van de Venter

October 2006

Sero-prevalence of hepatitis C virus among blood donors in Lagos, Nigeria

The prevalence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV), one of the causative agents of viral hepatitis was investigated. One hundred and sixty-seven (167) blood samples from donors which were sero-negative to hepatitis B virus markers were screened for presence of HCV IgM antibodies using a third generation ELISA kit. Out of the 167 sample tested 14 (8.4%) were positive for anti-HCV with the highest prevalence rate recorded in the...

Author(s): Ayolabi, C. I., Taiwo, M. A., Omilabu, S. A., Abebisi, A. O. and Fatoba, O. M.

October 2006

Antisickling agent in an extract of unripe pawpaw (Carica papaya): Is it real?

Investigations into antisickling and reversal of sickling activities of an aqueous extract of unripe pawpaw (Carica papaya) were carried out on blood from sickle cell patients (Haemoglobin SS, HbSS) using 2% sodium metabisulphite in a sickling test. The minimum concentration of the extract that achieved maximum antisickling in vitro and the fraction of the extract where the antisickling agent resides were...

Author(s): T. ODUOLA, F. A. A. ADENIYI, E. O. OGUNYEMI, I. S. BELLO and T. O. IDOWU

October 2006

Influence of some starch binders on the brittle fracture tendency of paracetamol tablets

The study was carried out to compare the binder effects of cassava and cocoyam starch with that of maize starch BP. The parameters investigated were the brittle fracture index (BFI), the tablet packing fraction (Pf), and tensile strength (T). Mucilages of the starches of varying concentrations; 15, 20, and 25% (w/v) were formed; their viscosities were determined and used to form paracetamol granules by wet-massing. The...

Author(s): Uhumwangho, M. U., Okor, R. S., Eichie, F. E. and Abbah, C. M.

October 2006

Accumulation of heavy metals from single and mixed metal solutions by the gastropod mollusc Tympanotonus fuscatus linnaeus from a Niger Delta estuary: Implications for biomonitoring

The usefulness of the intertidal gastropod Tympanotonus fuscatus L as a biomonitor of heavy metals in tropical estuaries was assessed.  The periwinkles were collected from a site in the upper Bonny Estuary, Southern Nigeria and exposed in a series of experiments either singly or binary mixtures to copper, zinc and cadmium. The accumulation of Cd was monotonic with increase in exposure concentration with a...

Author(s): Erema R. Daka, Ibarakumo I. Oweisana and Solomon A. Braide

October 2006

Microbial content of abattoir wastewater and its contaminated soil in Lagos, Nigeria

Microbial content of wastewater in two abattoirs and the impact on microbial population of receiving soil was studied in Agege and Ojo Local Government Areas in Lagos State, Nigeria.  Wastewater samples were collected from each of the abattoirs over three months period and examined for microbial content. Soil samples contaminated with the wastewaters were also collected and analysed for microbial content as...

Author(s): Adesemoye A. O., Opere B. O. and Makinde S. C. O.

October 2006

Nitrogen availability for nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria upon growth on dinitrogen

The filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc PCC 7120 is able to convert dinitrogen to ammonia in the absence of combined nitrogen. The expression of 20% of coding sequences from all major metabolic categories was examined in nitrogen fixing and non-nitrogen fixing growth conditions. The expression data were correlated with the nitrogen content of gene products. When growing on dinitrogen, Nostoc PCC 7120...

Author(s): Röbbe Wünschiers

October 2006

Effects of salinity on germination, growth and yield of five groundnut genotypes

The effects of salinity on germination, growth and yield parameters as well as phenotypic variance and heritability of five groundnut genotypes (Ex-Dakar, RRB 12, RMP 12, RMP 91 and Esan Local) were investigated. Saline treatments were imposed by irrigating the seeds and plants with varying concentrations of brackish water having electrical conductivities of 0.015, 1.50, 2.60, 4.68, 8.90 and 17.0 mS/cm. The results...

Author(s): J. K. Mensah, P.  A. Akomeah, B. Ikhajiagbe and E. O. Ekpekurede

October 2006

Textile effluent biodegradation potentials of textile effluent-adapted and non-adapted bacteria

Environmental pollution has been recognized as one of the major problems of the modern world. The increasing demand for water and the dwindling supply has made the treatment and reuse of industrial effluents an attractive option. Textile effluents are of concern because they colour the drains and ultimately the water bodies. They also diminish the water quality. The ability of microorganisms to degrade and metabolize a...

Author(s): Olukanni O. D., Osuntoki, A. A. and Gbenle, G. O.

October 2006

Impact of traditional processing methods on some physico chemical and sensory qualities of fermented cassava flour "Kpor umilin"

The study was conducted to investigate the effect of traditional processing/preservation methods on the physico-chemical and sensory quality of fermented cassava flour (Kpor umilin) in some areas of Benue State, Nigeria. The physical, chemical and organoleptic qualities of the traditionally processed flours were determined by standard methods in samples collected from five locations in the state. This was then...

Author(s): Inyang, C.U., Tsav-Wua, J.A and Akpapunam, M.A.

October 2006

Transformation of multiple soybean cultivars by infecting cotyledonary-node with Agrobacterium tumefaciens

Transformation of four soybean cultivars (Nannong88-1, Nannong18-6, Yu23 and Nannong 87C-38) by infecting cotyledonary-node with Agrobacterium tumefaciensstrain EHA105 harboring pBI121 containing GFP reporter gene was conducted. The results indicated that the addition of thiol compounds (L-cysteine, dithiothreitol and sodium thiosulfate) in co-cultivation period increased the transformation efficiency of all four...

Author(s): Xinping YI and Deyue YU

October 2006

The potential of using botanical insecticides for the control of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

Crude extracts of chinaberry tree (Melia azedarach L.), mexican marigold (Tagates spp.), water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes, Martius) and Castor oil (Ricinus communis L.) were tested for their effect on weevil mortality, settling responses and oviposition in the laboratory. All extracts of the botanicals did not show significant effects on weevil mortality compared to controls. Weevil settling responses...

Author(s): W. Tinzaara, W. Tushemereirwe, C. Nankinga, C.S. Gold and I. Kashaija

October 2006

Nutritive potentials and utilization of garden snail (Limicolaria aurora) meat meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings

The possibility of using garden snail (Limicolaria aurora) meat meal as a protein source in fish feeds was tested in Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. Five isonitrogenous (43% crude protein) diets in which garden snail meat meal was used to replace fish meal at 0%, (control diet), 25, 50, 75 and 100% inclusion levels were used for the study. The fish were fed ad-libitum for 8 weeks. Garden snail meat...

Author(s): Sogbesan, O. A., Ugwumba A. A. A. and Madu C. T.

October 2006

Evaluation of concentrate, grass and legume combinations on performance and nutrient digestibility of grower rabbits under tropical conditions

Thirty-five (35) grower crossbred rabbits were randomly allocated to seven combinations of concentrate, grass and legume in proportions of 50 g:60 g:40 g in a completely randomized design. The treatments were: (1) rabbit meal, Rhodes grass and groundnut haulms (RRG), (2) rabbit meal, Rhodes grass and sweet potato vines (RRP), (3) rabbit meal, Rhodes grass and soybean forage (RRS), (4) Soybean cheese waste meal, Rhodes...

Author(s): G. T. Iyeghe-Erakpotobor, R. Aliyu and J. Uguru