African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12212

Table of Content: 19 February 2008; 7(4)

February 2008

Environmental and genotypic effects on the growth rate of in vitro cassava plantlet (Manihot esceulenta)

  Two varieties of cassava were evaluated in vitro in the screen house and culture room using five different media treatment. Each treatment was replicated 12 times and observed for 5 weeks before sub-culturing. There were significant differences in the growth rate of plantlets in different media, which suggests an interaction between treatments and environments. However, F-probability on survival...

Author(s):   Sunday E. Aladele and Danladi D. Kuta      

February 2008

Challenges and impacts of agricultural biotechnology on developing societies

  The most critical areas in the world for bringing economic prosperity and stability are the developing countries. Agricultural productivity in these countries must advance more rapidly to meet growing food demands and raise incomes while protecting the environment for future generations. Agricultural biotechnology has the potential to play a large role toward this achievement. Sadly, this opportunity remains...

Author(s):   Nicholas Ozor      

February 2008

Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): Emerging molecular marker tools for improving agronomic traits in plant biotechnology

  Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) are providing in depth knowledge in plant biology, breeding and biotechnology. The emergence of many novel molecular marker techniques are changing and accelerating the process of producing mutations in plant molecular biology research. This coupled with the availability of cheap sequencing techniques and access to a complete genome...

Author(s):   Kwadwo Owusu Ayeh    

February 2008

Great expectations: The state of biotechnology research and development in South Africa

  As biotechnology industries are knowledge-intensive, Research and Experimental Development (R and D) are key drivers of growth. Governments and businesses have an interest in creating an environment that stimulates R and D and the commercialisation thereof. Discourse relating to the best means to support biotechnology R and D is extensive. However, there has to date a paucity of quantitative data describing...

Author(s):   Michael Gastrow    

February 2008

Current trends in malarial chemotherapy

  Malaria is a tropical disease caused by the genus Plasmodium. The sexual stage of the plasmodium is carried by mosquito while the asexual stage is carried by man. Transmission from the mosquito to man is through mosquito bite. Commonly presented symptoms of malarial attack include fever, weakness, anorexia, and anaemia. Some complications such as convulsion (in children) and acute pulmonary edema...

Author(s):   Emmanuel C. Ibezim and Uche Odo        

February 2008

Antioxidant properties of some medicinal Aristolochiaceae species

  Antioxidant properties of five Aristolochiaceae species namely Aristolochia brasiliensis Mart. and Zucc., Aristolochia bracteolata Retz., Aristolochia indicaLinn., Apama siliquosa Lamk. and Aristolochia tagala Cham. were investigated.Antioxidant and 2,2-diphenyl picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities, reducing powers, and the amount of total...

Author(s):   R. Thirugnanasampandan, G. Mahendran and V. Narmatha Bai        

February 2008

Applying the Taguchi method for optimized fabrication of bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles as drug delivery vehicles

  The objective of the present study was to optimize the fabrication of bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticle by applying the Taguchi method with characterization of the nanoparticle bioproducts. BSA nanoparticles have been extensively studied in our previous works as suitable carrier for drug delivery, since they are biodegradable, non-toxic and non antigenic. A statistical experimental design method...

Author(s):   Mohsen Jahanshahi, Ghasem Najafpour and Mostafa Rahimnejad      

February 2008

A comparative study of the antimicrobial properties of the ethanolic extracts of Landolphia owariensis leaf and root

  The leaf ethanolic extract (LEEX) and root ethanolic extract (REEX) of Landolphia owariensis were comparatively subjected to phytochemical and antimicrobial screening. Susceptibility of some clinical isolates (Staphylococcus spp., Proteusspp. and Escherichia coli) to the extracts was determined using dehydrogenase assay method. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence...

Author(s):   L. A. Nwaogu, C. S., Alisi, C. U. Igwe and C. O. Ujowundu      

February 2008

Aeromonas hydrophila disturbs water and electrolyte transport in Mugil cephalus L. intestine

  Fish diseases create a menace to aquaculture farms. They provoke disastrous economic losses and sanitary risks for the consumer. The present study aims to investigate the effect of the bacteria, Aeromonas hydrophila on water and electrolyte (Na+, K+, Cl-, HCO3-) flux of Mugil cephalus (L, 1758) intestine. Anterior, middle and distal gut segments of M. cephalus (L) intestine were...

Author(s):   F. Khemiss, R. Massoudi, S. Ahmadi, S. Ghoul-Mazgar, S. Safta, A. A. Moshtaghie and D. Saidane      

February 2008

In vitro clonal propagation of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.)

  A study was conducted with root and shoot tip explants of neem to develop an efficient protocol of regeneration. Shoot tips and root tips from 10 - 20 days old seedlings of neem were cultured on Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of BAP (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mg l-1) and NAA (0.0 and 0.05 mg l-1). Shoot buds were initiated...

Author(s):     M. Shahin-uz-zaman, M. Ashrafuzzaman, M. Shahidul Haque and Lutfun Nahar Luna          

February 2008

Effects of two different AMF species on growth and nutrient content of pepper seedlings grown under moderate salt stress

  This study was carried out to determine the effects of different Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) species on the growth and nutrient contents of pepper seedlings (cv. Demre) grown under moderate salt stress. Two different mychorrhizas (Glomus intraradices and Gigaspora margarita) were tested on a growing media containing moderate salt stress (75 ppm NaCl). The study was replicated four times with...

Author(s): Turkmen O., Sensoy S., Demir S. and Erdinc C.

February 2008

A survey of viral status on potatoes grown in Eritrea and in vitro virus elimination of a local variety ‘Tsaeda embaba’

  Potato viruses are the major causes of yield loss and reduction in quality of seed tubers in Eritrea. A study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of viruses in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) grown in Eritrea and to evaluate methods for their elimination. Leaf samples of two indigenous, (Tsaeda embaba and Keyih embaba) and three exotic varieties, (Ajiba, Spunta and...

Author(s):   Biniam, T. and Tadesse M          

February 2008

Composite Phaseolus vulgaris plants with transgenic roots as research tool

  Large seeded grain legumes such as the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) are very important crops with seeds that are major protein source for people in developing countries, but their yields and improvement lag behind the economically more important cereals. For research purposes, genetic transformation is a powerful tool to obtain valuable information on gene expression and...

Author(s):   Nathalie Colpaert, Sofie Tilleman, Marc van Montagu, Godelieve Gheysenand Nancy Terryn      

February 2008

A simple method of DNA extraction from coffee seeds suitable for PCR analysis

  High quality genomic DNA was successfully extracted from coffee seeds using a simple protocol devoid of liquid nitrogen or freeze-drying and proteinase K. The isolated DNA was quantified using spectrophotometer and using agarose gel electrophoresis. The DNA was free from polysaccharides, polyphenols, RNA and other contaminants. The quantity of DNA ranged from 180 to 630 μg/g of seed powder. Quality of DNA...

Author(s):   Manoj Kumar Mishra, , N. Sandhya Rani, A. S. Ram, H. L. Sreenath and Jayarama      

February 2008

Molecular evidence for the occurrence of two new luteoviruses in cool season food legumes in Northeast Africa

    Some legume samples with yellowing and stunting symptoms from Ethiopia and Sudan that serologically reacted with a broad-spectrum luteovirus monoclonal antibody did not react or very weakly reacted with virus-specific antibodies suggesting the occurrence of new luteovirus variants. Reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR amplification, cloning, nucleotide sequencing and analysis of coat protein (CP) gene of...

Author(s):   A. D. Abraham ,, M. Varrelmann and H. J. Vetten          

February 2008

Inheritance of fresh seed dormancy in groundnut

  Pre-harvest sprouting in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L) seeds belonging to sub species fastigiata is undesirable since it leads to substantial loss of seeds, both in quantity and quality. A short period of dormancy is therefore desirable in this sub-species to reduce such losses. This study was conducted to determine the heritability of fresh seed dormancy in groundnut and to transfer this...

Author(s):   Asibuo James Yaw, Akromah Richard, Safo-Kantanka, Osei, Adu-Dapaah, Hans Kofi Ohemeng-Dapaah, Seth and Agyeman, Adelaide      

February 2008

Discrimination and numerical analysis of human pathogenic Candida albicans strains based on SDS-PAGE protein profiles

  In the present study, 21 Candida albicans strains were investigated using the commercial kit API 20C AUX system and the numerical analysis of whole-cell protein profiles. The results of the commercial kit confirmed that the all the strains belonged to C. albicans species. However, the research indicated that SDS-PAGE of polypeptides of whole-cell extracts can provide more...

Author(s):   Ismet Berber and Suat Ekin      

February 2008

Tagging of resistance gene(s) to rhizomania disease in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)

  The rhizomania disease is one of the most important diseases in Iran and some other parts of the world which potentially could play a role in decreasing sugar yield in fields. One approach to combat with this disease is the use of resistance varieties. This varieties have been identified which are having resistance genes to rhizomania disease (i.e. Rz1, Rz2). In order to use these genes in breeding...

Author(s):   Nouhi, A., Amiri, R., Haghnazari. A., Saba, J. and Mesbah, M.      

February 2008

Expression of phytoene synthase (psy) gene and its relation with accumulation of carotenoids in tea [Camellia sinensis (L) O Kuntze]

  Carotenoids are important determinant of tea quality as many of the quality related flavour volatiles are produced through the degradation of carotenoids during tea processing. Variation in levels of carotenoids including neoxanthin, violoxanthin, xanthophylls and β-carotene in early and late period of spring, summer and autumn seasons in two tea cultivars were investigated. The relationship of phytoene...

Author(s):   Borthakur D, Lu JL, Chen H, Lin C, Du YY and Liang YR        

February 2008

Effect of population and level of industrialization on underground water quality of Abia state, Nigeria - physico-chemical properties

  The physico-chemical properties of underground waters in Abia State, Nigeria were determined with a view to ascertaining the effect of population density and level of industrialization on the water quality parameters using Aba (a relatively industrialized city) and Umuahia (a city with very few industries) as a case study. Underground waters of Aba had mean pH value of 4.43 ± 0.13 which was...

Author(s):   Ano A. O. and Okwunodulu F. U.      

February 2008

Physicochemical, toxicological and ecological analysis of Gökçekaya Dam Lake

  Dams built to supply electricity, irrigation and fresh water, change the characteristics of the region they are located. The ecological, limnological characteristics and the quality of water in the dam reservoir deteriorate with time. In this study, the physicochemical, toxicological and ecological parameters of Gökçekaya Dam Lake’s water, which is situated on Sakarya River were examined....

Author(s):   B. S. Akin, T. Atici and H. Katircioglu        

February 2008

Polluted Alamuyo River: Impacts on surrounding wells, microbial attributes and toxic effects on Allium cepa root cells

 The physicochemical analysis and microbial load of polluted Alamuyo River in Ibadan, Nigeria and selected wells along its course were evaluated. Toxic effects of water samples obtained from upstream (A) and down stream (F) of the river were also evaluated using Allium cepa root assay. The result of the analysis revealed that the water sample contained toxic substances. However, almost all parameters...

Author(s):   O. O. Fawole, T. A. Yekeen, A. A. Ayandele, A. Akinboro, M. A. Azeez and S. O. Adewoye      

February 2008

Effect of agricultural pesticides on the degradation of medium spill concentrations of Bonny light crude oil in a tropical rain forest soil

  The effect of three agricultural pesticides; K-othrin (deltamethrin), dichlorvos (2,2 dichlorovinydimethy phosphate) and carbofuran (2,3–dihydro–2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-y1methylcarbamate, on the degradation of medium spill concentrations of Bonny light crude oil in a tropical rain forest soil in the Niger Delta was investigated. Hydrocarbon (crude oil) loss within a 56-day period was monitored...

Author(s):   L. O. Odokuma and F. C. Akubuenyi        

February 2008

Catalytic properties of three catalases from Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea gongylodes)

  Catalase (EC was extracted from kohlrabi bulbs (Brassica oleraceagongylodes) with 0.05 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.0. On the basis of kinetic studies and activity stain for catalase, only three isoenzymes of catalases were detected in kohlrabi bulbs extract with pH optima at 4.5, 6.5 and 10. Highest catalytic efficiency (Vmax/Km) value was found for isoenzyme active at pH 6.5. Isoenzyme with pH optima...

Author(s):   Hossein Tayefi-Nasrabadi    

February 2008

The anti-tick properties of the root extracts of Senna italica subsp. arachoides

  This study examined the anti-tick properties of the root extracts of Senna italicasubsp. arachoides against adults of Hyalomma marginatum rufipes. Of the hexane, chloroform, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts tested, only ethyl acetate extracts proved to be potent against adults of H. marginatumrufipes. The acaricidal activity of the ethyl acetate root extract...

Author(s):   Magano S. R., Thembo K. M., Ndlovu S. M. and Makhubela N. F. H.      

February 2008

Influence of gallic and tannic acids on enzymatic activity and growth of Pectobacterium chrysanthemi (Dickeya chrysanthemi bv. chrysanthemi)

  The effect of phenolic acids (gallic and tannic acids) on growth of Pectobacterium chrysanhemi, and its protease and pectate lyase activities was tested. The results obtained showed a significant inhibiting effect of the tannic and gallic acids on the growth of this strain. The growth rate decreases in the presence of 400 μg/ml for gallic acid and 100 µg/ml fortannic acid. The enzymatic...

Author(s):   R. Zaidi –Yahiaoui, F. Zaidi and A. Ait Bessai,        

February 2008

Colour behaviour on mango (Mangifera indica) slices self stabilized in glass jars by hurdle technology during storage

  The effect of the syrup composition on behaviour colour of self stabilized mango slices in glass jars by hurdle technology during 180 days of storage was studied through 26-2 fractional factorial design. L* (lightness), a* (redness and greenness), and b* (yellowness and blueness) values were measured with a colorimeter and then hue angle (H*) and chroma (C*)...

Author(s):   José Armando Ulloa, Héctor Escalona and Lourdes Díaz