African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12487

Table of Content: 19 March 2007; 6(6)

March 2007

Phylogenetics in plant biotechnology: principles, obstacles and opportunities for the resource poor

Phylogenetic inference has become routine for most studies of genetic variation among plant taxa. However, inferring phylogenies can be confounded by both biological and computational or statistical complexities, resulting in misleading evolutionary hypotheses. This is particularly critical because the “true tree” can only truly be known in exceptional circumstances. Moreover, selecting appropriate...

Author(s): Joel W. Ochieng, Anne W. T. Muigai and George N. Ude

March 2007

Localizing genes using linkage disequilibrium in plants:integrating lessons from the medical genetics.

Finding genes controlling quantitative traits will aid molecular breeding for crops and livestock with superior yields, growth rates, and evolutionary potential. Such genes can be located using the candidate gene approach, genome wide scans, or by within family mapping. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) or association mapping, is a candidate gene approach that relies on detecting a statistical association between the desired...

Author(s): Joel W. Ochieng, Anne W. T. Muigai and George N. Ude

March 2007

Bacterial diversity in the intestinal tract of the fungus-cultivating termite Macrotermes michaelseni (Sjöstedt)

Microorganisms in the intestinal tracts of termites play a crucial role in the nutritional physiology of termites. The bacterial diversity in the fungus-cultivating Macrotermes michaelseni was examined using both molecular and culture dependent methods. Total DNA was extracted from the gut of the termite and 16S rRNA genes were amplified using bacterial specific primers. Representatives from forty-one (41)...

Author(s): Lucy Mwende Mackenzie, , Anne Thairu Muigai, Ellie Onyango Osir, Wilber Lwande, Martin Keller, Gerardo Toledo and Hamadi Iddi Boga

March 2007

Effects of sodium azide on yield parameters of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

The mutagenic effects of different concentrations of sodium azide (0.01 – 0.05%) on groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. cv SS1145B and RMP 91) were investigated. The characters studied include; plant height, number of branches per plant, pods/plant, seeds/pod, seeds/plant and 100 seed weight in the M1 and M2 generations. Both negative and positive shifts in mean values were recorded as a result of the...

Author(s): J. K. Mensah, and B. Obadoni

March 2007

Cloning and homologic analysis of Tpn I gene in silkworm Bombyx mori

The troponin complex is composed of three subunits, Troponin C (the calcium sensor component) and Troponin T and I (structural proteins). Tpn C is encoded by multiple genes in insects, while the Tpn T and Tpn I proteins are encoded by single genes. Tpn I binds to actin and Tpn T binds to tropomyosin. We cloned and sequenced the Tpn I (AY873787) gene from Bombyx mori that encodes 225 amino acids and contains a...

Author(s): Zhao Yuan, , Yao Qin, Tang Xudong, Wang qiang, Yin huijuan, Hu Zhigang, Lu Jian and Chen Keping

March 2007

Detection of RAPD markers-linked to resistance to cassava anthracnose disease

Cassava anthracnose disease (CAD) is a major stem disease of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in the cassava growing areas of the world. To identify markers associated with resistance to CAD, F1 progenies were produced from a cross between resistant genotype TMS 92/0326, and susceptible genotype TME 117, as the experimental population. The chi-square test gave a goodness of fit for the expected ratio of 1:1...

Author(s): O. Akinbo, M. Gedil, E. J. A. Ekpo, J. Oladele and  A. G. O. Dixon

March 2007

Usage of U7 snRNA in gene therapy of hemoglobin C disorder: feasibility by gene ontology tool

Hemoglobin (Hb) C disorder is an important hemoglobinopathy with the highest endemicity in Middle East. The red blood cell abnormality is attributed to the beta thalassemic nature of the beta C (bC) globin gene. Here, a bioinformatic analysis was performed to study the effect of co-expression between human Hb C b-globin chain gene and U7.623. The gene ontological results show that full recovery of hemoglobin function...

Author(s): Viroj Wiwanitkit

March 2007

Herbicidal effects of effluent from processed cassava on growth performances of Chromolaena odorata weeds population

An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of effluent i.e. seepings from processed cassava on growth performance of potted seedlings of Chromlaena odorata (L). Serial  dilutions of effluents processed cassava i.e. 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, and 0% (water only) control were made and used to water potted Chromolaenaplants for 10 weeks and growth performance i.e. plant height, stem girth, number...

Author(s): A. F. Ogundola and M. O. Liasu

March 2007

In Vitro screening of tomato genotypes for drought resistance using polyethylene glycol

Drought is a major abiotic factor that limits plant growth and productivity. Tomato is an important vegetable crop and area under production is limited by irrigation water scarcity. Effort was made to screen tomato germplasm under in vitrocondition using polyethylene glycol (PEG) at four concentrations (0, 20, 40 and 60 g/l) with two replications in factorial CRD. Important seedling characters like root length and...

Author(s): Manoj Kulkarni and Uday Deshpande

March 2007

Effect of pre-sowing treatments on seed germination and seedling growth of Tetracarpidium conophorun Mull.

  Pre-sowing treatments were evaluated for Tetracarpidium conophorum. Mechanically scarified T. conophorum seeds soaked in indole acetic acid for 24 h yielded 90% seed germination. Smoked- and sun-dried seeds for 14 days yielded 73 and 33.3% seed germination, respectively. Poorest values were obtained from acid treatment (0%), while the control had 20%. The tough seed coat is the...

Author(s): Ehiagbanare, J. E. and Onyibe, H. I.

March 2007

Determination of kinetic parameters of α-amylase producing thermophile Bacillus sphaericus

Studies on the α-amylase-producing thermophilic bacterium isolated and identified from a hot spring in Jordan and designated as Bacillus sphaericus were carried out in a laboratory scale fermenter. The growth and enzyme production optimum conditions were pH 7 and 50oC. The kinetic study of cellular growth indicates μmax, Ks, τd, Yx/sand kd were 0.53 h-1, 1.1 g/l, 1.98 h, 0.44 g cell/g...

Author(s): Z. Al-Qodah, H. Daghstani, Ph. Geopel and W. Lafi

March 2007

Standardization of growth and fermentation criteria of Lasiodiplodia theobromae for production of jasmonic acid

Aim of the study was to examine the enhanced growth supporting conditions and production of jasmonic acid (JA) by Lasiodiplodia theobromae in liquid cultures. Seven different media were assessed for supporting the maximum growth of the L. theobromae. Basal salt media supported maximum growth on solid as well as liquid media. Optimum temperature and pH for growth of L. theobromae were found...

Author(s): Pinakin C. Dhandhukia and Vasudev R. Thakkar

March 2007

Evaluation of hydrogen sulphide test for detection of fecal coliform contamination in drinking water from various sources

The assessment of H2S field test for detection of potability of drinking water was evaluated by analysing 1050 water samples from various sources at room temperature and at 37ºC after 18, 24, and 48 h of incubation. The H2S test showed 100, 84 and 89% correlation with Eijkman test, Membrane Filter Technique (MFT) and Most Probable Number (MPN) test for coliform, respectively. In comparisons with MPN the H2S test...

Author(s): D. H. Tambekar, N. B. Hirulkar, S. R.Gulhane, P. N. Rajankar and S. S. Deshmukh

March 2007

Efficacy of Euphorbia milli and Euphorbia pulcherrima on aflatoxin producing fungi (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus)

Efficacy of seven different concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 mg/ml) of dry flower powder of Euphorbia milli and Euphorbia pulcherrima was tested on the growth of aflatoxin producing toxigenic strains of fungi’ Aspergillus flavus andAspergillus parasiticus in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar medium (SDA). Total (100%) inhibition of growth of both A. flavus and A....

Author(s): Murugan, S., Anand, R., Uma Devi, P., Vidhya, N. and Rajesh, K. A.

March 2007

Antibacterial and antifungal effect of high pH and paraffin wax application on tomatoes, oranges and peppers

The antibacterial and antifungal effects of high pH (9, 10) and paraffin wax were determined. Determination of antibacterial and antifungal activity of the combined treatments was achieved by aerobic mesophilic count of bacteria and fungi on the surface of the tomatoes, peppers and oranges using serial dilution and pour plate techniques and compared prior to and after 4 days of treatment with buffer (pH 9, 10) and wax...

Author(s): Magashi Abdulkadir M. and Bukar Aminu

March 2007

Characteristics of lipase isolated from coconut (Cocos nucifera linn) seed under different nutrient treatments

  Lipase (triacyglycerol acyl hydrolase, E. C. activity was demonstrated on acetone powder prepa-red from coconut seeds, under different nutrients condition. Conversion of the free fatty acid released to copper salt enabled the activity of the crude enzyme extract on coconut oil, triolein, tripalmitine and olive oil to be determined colorimetrically. Lipase from coconut plant grown under complete...

Author(s): B. O. Ejedegba, E. C. Onyeneke and P. O. Oviasogie

March 2007

Assessment of the hepatic effects, phytochemical and proximate compositions of Phyllanthus amarus

Aqueous extract of pulverized whole Phyllanthus amarus was assessed for hepatic effects in albino rats. Its phytochemical, proximate and mineral constituents were also evaluated. The results showed that the extract significantly reduced the plasma activities of alanine and aspartate transaminases and total bilirubin concentration (P < 0.01), with a non- significant increase in the plasma concentration of...

Author(s): Chidi U. Igwe, Linus A. Nwaogu and Cosmas O. Ujuwondu

March 2007

Comparison of two competitive ELISAs for the detection of specific peste-des-petits-ruminant antibodies in sheep and cattle populations

Peste-des-petits-ruminant (PPR) continues to be a major problem of small ruminants in Africa, the Middle East and Asia. The closely related paramyxovirus causing rinderpest (RP) has been largely eradicated by a global vaccination campaign. However, PPR screening of large populations has lacked a sufficiently reliable, fast and cheap screening test. This study compares two commercially available PPR antibodies ELISA kits...

Author(s): E. Couacy-Hymann, S.C. Bodjo,  K. Tounkara, Y.M. Koffi, A.H. Ohui, T. Danho, B.M. Dec. Bronsvoort

March 2007

Assessment of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon content in four species of fish in the Niger Delta by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

Analysis for the presence of sixteen priority polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]an-thracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, dibenz[a, h]anthracene and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene) was carried out on four different species of fish found in the Niger...

Author(s): Chimezie Anyakora and Herbert Coker

March 2007

Sugar and macrominerals composition of sap produced by Raphia hookeri palms

Mature Raphia hookeri palms located in the experimental fields of the Nigerian Institute For Oil Palm Research Nigeria were selected, and tapped daily at the base of the inflorescences. The exudates (saps) were collected and the sugars and macromineral composition were determined. Maximum sucrose quantity (9.5%) was obtained about 28 days after initiation of tapping. The sucrose concen-tration was correlated...

Author(s): Obahiagbon, F. I. and Osagie, A. U.

March 2007

Degradation properties of wild Adansonia digitata (Baobab) and Prosopsis africana (Lughu) oils on storage

The deterioration of Adansonia digitata and Prosopsis africana oils on storage for 140 days was evaluated using chemical and physical parameters. The chemical parameters evaluated included peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), percentage free fatty acids (%FFA), and saponification value (SV). The physical parameters used involved the measurement of infrared (IR) spectroscopy and refractive index...

Author(s): I. I. Nkafamiya, B. A. Aliyu, A. J. Manji, and U.U. Modibbo

March 2007

Studies on the chemical composition and physico-chemical properties of the seeds of baobab (Adasonia digitata)

The seeds of baobab used in preparation of local condiments was analysed to establish the proximate composition and the physico-chemical characteristics of the oil and effect of storage on the oil. Results obtained showed that the saponification value (SV), iodine value (IV), peroxide value (PV), acid value (AV), percentage free fatty acid (%FFA) and refractive index of the oil are...

Author(s): I. I. Nkafamiya, S. A. Osemeahon, D. Dahiru and H. A. Umaru

March 2007

Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum L. growing in Eastern Kenya

Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were...

Author(s):   Lexa G. Matasyoh, Josphat C. Matasyoh, Francis N. Wachira, Miriam G. Kinyua, Anne W. Thairu Muigai and Titus K. Mukiama    

March 2007

In vitro antimicrobial activity of Trapa natans L. fruit rind extracted in different solvents

Trapa natans L. fruit rind was extracted in different solvents with increasing polarity; 1,4-dioxan, chloroform, acetone, dimethylformamide, ethanol and water.  The extractive yield ranged from 0.62 – 12.62%. The antibacterial activity of all the extracts was determined by agar disc diffusion method.  Maximum antibacterial activity was observed against Gram negative bacteria. The...

Author(s): J. Parekh and S. Chanda

March 2007

Susceptibility of some multiple resistant bacteria to garlic extract

Historically, garlic (Allium sativum) has been found to possess many therapeutic properties including antimicrobial, antineoplastic, anticardiovascular, immuno-stimulatory and hypoglycaemic activities. Its antimicrobial activity is attributed to its key component allicin, which is rapidly synthesised from its precursor when garlic is crushed. This study assesses the antibacterial potentiality of garlic using mod-ern...

Author(s): Muhsin A. Jabar and Amina Al-Mossawi

March 2007

Synthesis and neuropharmacological activity of some quinoxalinone derivatives

Eight quinoxalinone derivatives were synthesized and investigated for some neuropharmacological effects (analgesia, sedation, convulsion, anxiety, memory and psychosis) in mice and rats. In the CNS depressant activity, N,N-dibenzyl-2,3-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoxaline-6-sulfonamide is the most active, while the other compounds appear variously dose-dependent. Only three of the compounds showed anxiolytic effect, with...

Author(s): G. Olayiwola, C. A. Obafemi and F. O. Taiwo

March 2007

Development and validation of dissolution test for Metoprolol sustained release capsules

Dissolution test for sustained release capsules of Metoprolol 125 mg was developed and validated according to FDA and ICH guidelines. Metoprolol coated pellets were coated with microcrystalline wax and glyceryl distearate for slow release of drug. The dissolution method which uses USP apparatus I (Basket) with rotating at 100 rpm, 900 ml of different dissolution medium, ultra violet spectroscopy for quantification was...

Author(s): K. Kannan, T. Subburaj, R. Manavalan, P. K. Karar

March 2007

Effect of heat treatment on polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activities in Algerian stored dates

Effect of heat treatment (55°C/20 min) on polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD)   activities and total phenolic compounds was investigated in Algerian dates (Deglet Nour variety) at Tamar (fully ripe) stage and in dates stored for 5 months at ambient temperature and in cold storage (10°C). Results obtained showed a high percentage of total phenolic compounds. These compounds decreased...

Author(s): KHALI Mustapha, SELSELET-ATTOU Ghalem

March 2007

Incorporation of turmeric-lime mixture during the preparation of tomato puree

New types of tomato puree products were developed by blanching matured tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) for 1 min, 2 min and 3 min individually with or without addition of the mixture of turmeric and lime during the blanching time. Soluble solid content and pH of the puree products were in the range of 11 - 12.6 â—‹Brix and 4.32 - 4.68 respectively. Total Hunter Lab colour difference (DE) of treated sample...

Author(s): Chaitali Dutta, Banani Ray Chowdhury, Runu Chakraborty and Utpal Raychaudhuri

March 2007

Effects of cowpea fortification and the level of ripeness of plantain on the nutritive value of plantain based snack foods

To investigate effects of cowpea addition and level of ripeness of plantain on the nutritional and sensory characteristics of Kaklo and Ofam in Ghana, A 2X4 factorial experiment with firm and soft ripe plantain and cowpea fortification of 0, 10, 20 and 30% was designed. The proximate composition and accepta-bility of products using a 7-point hedonic scale were evaluated. With the addition of 30%...

Author(s): Ann Nancy Etsey, Esther Sakyi-Dawson, Samuel Sefa-Dedeh, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Kwaku Tano-Debrah  and George Amponsah Annor

March 2007

Development of amino resin for emulsion paint formulation: reactive blending of methylol urea with soybean oil

In this work, methylol urea resin (MUR) was reactively blended with various concentrations (0 - 35%) of soybean oil (SBO) in order to formulate a new two-component polymer system for application as a coating agent for emulsion paint formulation. Formaldehyde emission and some physical properties of the blended resin were evaluated. Moisture uptake and density decreased with increase in the SBO content in the blend....

Author(s): Osemeahon, S. A. and Barminas, J. T.

March 2007

Study of a composite from reactive blending of methylol urea resin with natural rubber

This study was designed to study some physical properties of a composite derivable from reactive blending of methylol urea resin (MUR) with natural rubber (NR). Formaldehyde emission, decreased with increase in NR concentration in the blend. Elongation at break and viscosity recorded an initial increase but gradually decreased with increase in NR concentration. The melting point however showed an opposite behavior. The...

Author(s): Osemeahon, S. A. and Barminas J. T.

March 2007

Performance of broiler chickens served heat-treated fluted pumpkin (Telfaria occidentalis) leaves extract supplement

Performance of broiler chickens served heat-treated fluted pumpkin (Telfaria occidentalis) leaves extract (FPLE) was investigated. The experiment was carried out during the early rainy season of 2005. One hundred and twenty five day-old chicks of Anak 2000 were weighed and randomly distributed to five dietary treatments A, B, C, D and E which contained no FPLE (control), fluted pumpkin leaves (FPL) no heat treatment,...

Author(s): F. C. Nworgu, A. A. O. Ekemezie, A. O. Ladele and B. M. Akinrolabu

March 2007

Population, seasonal abundance, Dockovdia oruensis infection and other parasites of Potadoma moerchi in southwestern Nigeria

Dockovdia oruensis and some other infections were studied in relation to the population and seasonal abundance of Potadoma moerchi from three streams in a town endemic for schistosomiasis in Ijebu North, southwestern Nigeria from November 2002 to October 2003. 72.9% of the total 958 specimens of P. moerchi collected were from Eri-Oru Stream. 55.6% and 100% of the snails from Eri-Oru and Ojupon,...

Author(s): O. M. Agbolade, T. Gledhill, O.T. Fajebe, O.M. Abolade and T.M. Olateju