African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12487

Table of Content: 20 August 2007; 6(16)

August 2007

Handmade cloning of mammals

Handmade embryo reconstitution (HMER) has been used to study the parameters of nuclear transfer experiments such as fusion process, nuclear remodeling, nuclear reprogramming, biochemical processes, and biological processes during embryogenesis. These parameters have been widely investigated using the micromanipulator-based cloning technique (MBCT). This technique is a tedious, multi-step, time consuming and complicated...

Author(s): Adil Salim l Elsheikh

August 2007

Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizer on yield and chlorophyll content of maize (Zea mays L.) and sorghum Sorghum bicolour (L.) Moench)

The effects of amending soil with organic (poultry manure) and inorganic fertilizer on yield and chlorophyll content of maize (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolour (L.) Moench) was carried out at the Teaching and Research (T&R) Farm of the Obafemi Awolowo University, (O.A.U.) Ile - Ife, Nigeria. The experiment was a randomised complete block design (RCBD), laid out in a split-plot arrangement in the...

Author(s): B. J. Amujoyegbe, J. T. Opabode and A Olayinka

August 2007

In vitro growth of four isolates of Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc in the humid tropics

Investigation was carried out on Sclerotium rolfsii isolated from four plant parts on PDA media for differences in the mycelia and sclerotia growth, in the tropical humid lowlands of Southeastern Nigeria. The result reveals that there were variation in the number and size (in diameter) of the sclerotia produced by the isolates. The mycelia growth rate was same in all the isolates covering the 9.0 cm plates at...

Author(s): Okereke, V. C. and Wokocha, R. C. 

August 2007

Effects of different levels of decomposed poultry manure on yield of muskmelon at Anse Boileau, Seychelles

A field experiment was conducted from May to July, 2005 and 2006 at the Vegetable Evaluation and Research Station, Anse Boileau, Mahe, Seychelles to assess the effects of different levels of decomposed poultry manure to determine the optimal rate that would maximize muskmelon yield under Seychelles conditions. The experiment consisted of five treatments; an untreated control and four levels of decomposed poultry manure...

Author(s): Ijoyah, M.O.

August 2007

Hormonal regulation for callogenesis and organgenesis of Artemisia absinthium L

Callus cultures were induced from leaf and stem explants of Artemisia absinthium, at different auxin and cytokinin concentrations. Moderate concentrations of growth regulators either in combination or in single in MS medium produced friable, light green and non-embryogenic callus from both explants. These totipotent cells gave rise to shoots when transferred to same or different growth regulator containing medium...

Author(s): Muhammad Zia, Riaz-ur-Rehman and Muhammad Fayyaz Chaudhar

August 2007

Intercropping soybean and maize in a derived savanna ecology

Compared to sole soybean, intercropping soybean and maize on flat and ridge reduced yields by 1.0 – 29.1% and 29.4 - 40.2% respectively. In maize, intercropping on flat and ridge reduced yields by 13.2 - 25.2% and 24.8 - 43.5% respectively. Planting sole soybean on ridge enhanced mean yield by 18.6% as compared to the sole crop yield on flat. Conversely, planting sole maize on flat enhanced grain yield by 2.8%....

Author(s): J. A. RAJI

August 2007

Effect of Terminalia chebula fruit extract on lipid peroxidation and antioxidative system of testis of albino rats

The effect of aqueous extract of the Terminalia chebula was studied in male albino rats to explore its activities on testis. 1.0 ml of aqueous extract of T. chebula (500 mg/kg body weight) was given orally for 45 days. The activity of lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase were significantly increased but the concentration of antioxidantenzyme glutathione, and...

Author(s): Krishnamoorthy, P., Vaithinathan, S., Vimal Rani, A. and Bhuvaneswari, A.

August 2007

HIV subtype and drug resistance patterns among drug naïve persons in Jos, Nigeria

To determine HIV-1 subtypes and antiretroviral drug resistance mutations for 16 infected, pregnant women in Jos, Nigeria, part of pol (1040 bp) was amplified from patient PBMC DNA, sequenced and analyzed.  Eight of the samples were subtype G, three were CRF02_AG and 2 were unique recombinant forms (URF) between G and CRF02_AG. The remaining consisted of 3 different strains: one was subtype C, and the other 2 were...

Author(s): P. Lar, N. Lar, K. Bemis, J. Jelpe, L. Enzyguirre, L. Ayuba, D. Zella, P. Kanki, J. K. Carr , W. Blattner and A. G. Abimiku

August 2007

Evaluation of post-vaccination immunity to canine distemper and parvoviruses in Benin City, Nigeria

A study was conducted to determine the immune status of dogs vaccinated against Canine Parvovirus (CPV) and Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) by a clinic-based immunoblot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a commercially available 120 sample immunocomb® test kit for canine parvo and distemper IgG  in Benin City, Nigeria. Out of 120 dogs sampled, 63 (52.5%) were females while 57 (47.5%) were males. 84...

Author(s): Eghafona, N. O., Jacob, J. and Yah, S. C.

August 2007

Phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of the crude extracts from the root, stem bark and leaves of Vitellaria paradoxa (GAERTN. F)

The root, stem and leaves of Vitellaria paradoxa, belonging to the Sapotaceae family and which have some ethnomedicinal applications were studied. Phytochemical screening of the plant parts reveals the presence of carbohydrates (free reducing sugars, ketoses, pentoses and starch), saponins, steroids, tannins and alkaloids. The antimicrobial screening of the crude methanol extract carried out in...

Author(s): Ndukwe, I. G., Amupitan, J. O., Isah, Y. and Adegoke, K. S.

August 2007

Pharmacological activity of 2,3,8-tri-O-methyl ellagic acid isolated from the stem bark of Irvingia gabonensis

2,3,8-Tri-O-methyl ellagic acid was isolated from the stem bark of Irvingia gabonensis. The acid showed significant antimicrobial activity on some pathogens.   Key words: Ellagic acid, Irvingia gabonensis, clinical isolates, in vitro studies, pharmacological activity.

Author(s): George, I. Ndukwe  and Yimin Zhao

August 2007

Anti-inflammatory studies of yam (Dioscorea esculenta) extract on wistar rats

The defatted methanol extract of Dioscorea esculenta tuber was evaluated for anti-inflammatory properties in animal model using Wistar rats. The study was done using the cotton thread method in measuring the right hind paw oedema and granuloma tissue formation in rats. The extract was tested at doses between 100 – 200 mg/kg body weight of rats. Preliminary phytochemical screening confirmed the presence...

Author(s): J. O. Olayemi and E. O. Ajaiyeoba

August 2007

Concentration and bioavailability of cadmium by some plants

A survey was carried out to evaluate the existing level of cadmium in three plant species within and around a refuse site at Ojota, Lagos State, Nigeria. Concentration ranged from background levels to levels well in excess of the maximum tolerable limit in agricultural soils. In the leaves, the least (highest in bracket) of cadmium concentration was 0.24 (4.99)mg/kg while in the roots, it was 0.39 (11.03)mg/kg. The...

Author(s): Ololade I. A. and Ologundudu A.

August 2007

Performance of Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a soil contaminated with spent-engine oil

Phytoremediation is an alternative low cost approach for in situ treatment of polluted soils. This study evaluated growth and biochemical composition of Phaseolus vulgarisas influenced by spent engine oil contaminated soil. The experiment was conducted in a pot during the 2005 cropping season. The soil received (0% (control), 1, 5 and 10%) v/w of oil and was completely randomized with three replications...

Author(s): C. O. Nwoko, P. N. Okeke, O. O. Agwu and I. E. Akpan

August 2007

Reclamation of sodic soils in northern Tanzania, using locally available organic and inorganic resources

Sodic soils could produce useful maize (Zea mays L.) crop yields if reclaimed by appropriate techniques. A field experiment was conducted on the selected lowlands of northern Tanzania using a randomised complete block design to study the effectiveness of supplying gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) or farmyard manure (FMY) alone or both mixtures on the reclamation of a sodic soil. Sodic soil and FYM were characterised to...

Author(s): Joachim H. J. R. Makoi and Patrick A. Ndakidemi

August 2007

Biosorption of arsenic and cadmium from aqueous solutions

The biosorption of cadmium and arsenic from aqueous solutions onto the unmodified compact biomass of microscopic filamentous fungus Aspergillus clavatus DESM. was studied in the concentration range of 0.25 – 100 mg.l-1. The experimental biosorption results for arsenic and cadmium followed well the Freundlich equilibrium sorption model.   Key words: Biosorption, arsenic, cadmium,...

Author(s): Slavomír ÄŒerňanský, Martin Urík, Jaroslav Ševc, Pavol Littera and Edgar Hiller

August 2007

Levels of antinutritional factors in some wild edible fruits of Northern Nigeria

Sixteen wild fruits commonly consumed in northern Nigeria were assessed chemically for the presence of oxalate, phytate, saponin, and tannin. The highest level of oxalate was found in Zizyphus spina-christi, Zizyphus mauritiana and Balanite aegyptiaca(16.20±2.12%, 15.50±1.50% and 14.50±2.08%, respectively). Phytate was highest inSclerocarya birrea (3.56±0.54%)...

Author(s): H. A. UMARU, R. ADAMU, D. DAHIRU and M. S. NADRO

August 2007

Studies on the effect of petroleum hydrocarbon on the microbial and physico-chemicals characteristics of soil

The microorganisms capable of degrading crude oil are present in any conceivable environment. This study was aimed at ascertaining the bacteria and fungi that are able to survive in soils contaminated with 3 different petroleum hydrocarbon fractions (premium motor spirit ‘PMS’, domestic purpose kerosene ‘DPK’ and automotive gas oil ‘AGO’). Soil surface samples (0.5 cm) were collected...

Author(s): Akpor, O. B., Igbinosa, O. E. and Igbinosa, O. O.

August 2007

Biochemical studies on changes associated with enzymes of glucose metabolism in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infected with Penaeus monodon (Fabricius)

Tiger prawns (Penaeus monodon) were infected with white spot virus artificially by intramuscular injection of the virus inoculum. Haemolymph, hepatopancreas and muscle samples from the infected prawns were analyzed for glucose and enzymes viz aldolase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-diphosphatase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the carbohydrate metabolism. Glucose content reduced to 33% of its original...

Author(s): Suseela Mathew, Ashok Kumar Kesavan Nair, Rangasamy Anandan, Pullanniyil Gopalan Nair Viswanathan Nair, and Koodenchery Devadasan

August 2007

Effect of process modification on the physio-chemical and sensory quality of fufu-flour and dough

A modified cassava processing method was used for the production of fufu flour and the flour obtained was compared analytically with that obtained using the traditional process. The flour obtained from the modified process had hydrocyanide (HCN) levels of 200 - 300% lower (10 – 16 mg/kg) than that of the traditionally processed fufu flour (38 mg/kg). Lighter fufu flours and dough were obtained as indicated by...

Author(s): Okoro Casmir Chukwuemeka

August 2007

Effect of lactic acid bacteria starter culture fermentation of cassava on chemical and sensory characteristics of fufu flour

The effects of lactic acid fermentation of cassava on the chemical and sensory characteristic of fufu flour were investigated. Two strains of Lactobacillus plantarumwere used as starter cultures for the fermentation of cassava to fufu for 96 h. The resultant wet fufu samples were dried at 65oC in a cabinet dryer for 48 h and analyzed for chemical and sensory characteristics. Fermentation caused a high reduction in...

Author(s): Sobowale, A. O., Olurin, T. O. and Oyewole, O. B.

August 2007

Effects of feeding adult snails Stylosanthes guianensis or Lablab purpureus as substitute for pawpaw leaf

The feeding trial assessed the performance, carcass and sensory evaluation of adult snails fed solely on leaves of Stylosanthes guianensis or Lablab purpureus as substitute for pawpaw leaf. Ninety-six (96) adult snails were used for the trial, and they were shared into three groups. Each group was replicated four times with 8 snails per replicate in a completely randomized design. Parameters measured...

Author(s): Okpeze, C. N., Omole, A. J., Ajayi, F. T. and Adebowale, E. A. 

August 2007

Preliminary investigation of the effect of Rhizophora racemosa (mangrove) feed additive on broiler performance

An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of consumption of Rhizophora racemosa (Mangrove) incorporated feed on feed intake, body weight gain, and some visceral organs of broiler chicks. Sixty day-old Hubbard broiler chicks were randomly allocated into four treatment groups, A, B, C and D of 15 birds per group and 5 birds per replicate. The dosages of the groups were 0 (control), 10, 20 and 30 g per...

Author(s): S. N. Wekhe, K. O. Ogbamgba and C.C. OBOH

August 2007

Biological assessment of Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: Cichlidae; Linne, 1958) in a tropical floodplain river

Biological assessment of Oreochromis niloticus was conducted monthly between January, 2004 and December, 2006 in 3 zones [(Zone I: upper Cross River (savanna wetlands) Zone II: middle Cross River (savanna/forest wetlands) and Zone III: lower Cross River (forest wetlands)] along 200 km length of the inland wetlands of Cross River, Nigeria. Major items in the diet of O. niloticus were algae and plant...

Author(s): B. O. Offem, Y. Akegbejo-Samsons and I. T. Omoniyi

August 2007

Phosphorus fractionation and crop performance on an alfisol amended with phosphate rock combined with or without plant residues

    The effects of Sokoto phosphate rock (PR) and plant residues on soil phosphorus (P) fractions and crop performance was studied in the field on an alfisol in the derived savanna of southwestern Nigeria. The plant residues studied were leaves ofDactyladenia barteri, Flemingia macrophylla, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, maize (Zea mays) stover...

Author(s): G. O. Kolawole and G. Tian

August 2007

Effect of fermentation on the chemical composition of mango (Mangifera indica R) peels

Ripe mango peels (Mangifera indica R) was naturally fermented for 96 h at room temperature (30oC). The quality of the fermented mango peels were accessed by determing the microbiological quality, proximate composition as well as the anti-nutritional content. Mixed flora of fungi and bacteria were isolated from the fermenting mango peels. Three species of fungi (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Asper-gillus...

Author(s): A.O. Ojokoh