African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12427

Table of Content: 24 Apr 2012; 11(33)

April 2012

Procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and prognosis in septic patients

  Sepsis is of major importance worldwide, placing economic burden on healthcare systems and often resulting in morbidity and mortality in affected patients. The use of rapid, effective prognostic laboratory tests will no doubt improve decision-making on the part of the physician. We describe prospective observational studies of two commonly used biomarkers when monitoring the clinical course of sepsis,...

Author(s):   Yoshan Moodley  

April 2012

Direct colony polymerase chain reaction (PCR): An efficient technique to rapidly identify and distinguish Mycosphaerella fijiensis and Mycosphaerella musicola

  Sigatoka disease is the most important threat for banana production worldwide. Many species of Mycosphaerella have been described from banana but, to date, the three species Mycosphaerella fijiensis, M. musicola and M. eumusae are the only species found to be pathogenic to banana. Reliable identification by classical methods requires expertise because these fungi produce similar...

Author(s):   Roberto Vázquez-Euán, Rosa Grijalva-Arango, Bartolomé Chi-Manzanero, Miguel Tzec-Simá, Ignacio Islas-Flores, Cecilia Rodríguez-García, Leticia Peraza-Echeverría, Andrew C. James, Gilberto Manzo-Sánchez and Blondy Canto-Canché    

April 2012

Rapid establishment of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) system for chloroplast DNA in tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze]

  A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) optimization reaction system for cpDNA in tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] was rapidly established. Results show that the optimal PCR reaction system was 100 ng template DNA, 200 μmolL-1 dNTPs, 1.5 mmolL-1 MgCl2, 50 ng primer, 3U Taq DNA polymerase, and ddH2O to the total volume of 25 μl; the optimal...

Author(s):   Chen, S. X., Qi, G. N., Li, H., Shan, H. L and Zou, Y.  

April 2012

Genetic diversity of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Nigeria using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers

  Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is the causal agent of yam anthracnose disease in Nigeria. Differential cultivars and amplified fragment length polymorphic DNA markers were used to assess the extent of genetic diversity among 39 isolates of the pathogen. Fourteen (14) pathotypes of the pathogen were identified based on inoculation of a differential set of Dioscorea alata genotypes of...

Author(s):   Aduramigba-Modupe, A. O., Asiedu, R., Odebode, A. C. and Owolade, O. F.  

April 2012

Identification of a male-specific amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker in Broussonetia papyrifera

  The present study exhibits amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) molecular marker for sex identification in Broussonetia papyrifera. Based on nine selective amplification primer combinations, 230 bands were produced and the E-AGG/M-CAA combination was found to be a male-specific AFLP marker. Subsequently, this male-specific AFLP fragment was sequenced and converted into a sequence tagged...

Author(s):   Wang Lianjun, Dai Changbo, Liu Degao and Liu Qingchang  

April 2012

Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers analysis of genetic diversity among Brassica napus inbred lines based on correlation between seed quality traits and seed pigments content

  Information regarding diversity and relationships among different quality traits and seed coat characterization of breeding material is necessary for hybrid Brassica napus breeding and seed coat color selecting. Simple-sequence repeat (SSR) analysis of the 62 loci distributed uniformly throughout the Brassica napus genome was carried out for 90 inbred lines which were derived from the...

Author(s):   Cunmin Qu,#, Fuyou Fu#, Liezhao Liu, Kun Lu, Jieheng Huang, Xiaolan Liu, Jingmei Xie, Li Chen, Rui Wang, Zhanglin Tang, and Jiana LiM  

April 2012

The effects of activation time on the production of fructose and bioethanol from date extract

  In this study, fructose and bioethanol were produced from date's extract by fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mutant strain ATCC 36858 and wild strain STAR brand, where the latter was activated at different periods: 30 min, 1, 2 and 3 days. Profiles of sugar consumption and bioethanol production using STAR were found to be almost having the same pattern for all activation periods, while...

Author(s):   Gaily, M. H., Sulieman, A. K., Zeinelabdeen, M. A., Al-Zahrani, S. M., Atiyeh, H. K. and Abasaeed, A. E.  

April 2012

In vitro regeneration from internodal explants of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) via indirect organogenesis

  Organogenic callus induction and high frequency shoot regeneration were achieved from internodal explants of bitter melon. About 97.5% of internodal explants derived from 30 day old in vivo grown plants produced green, compact nodular organogenic callus in Murashige and Skoog (MS) plus Gamborg et al. (1968) (B5) medium containing 5.0 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2.0 μM...

Author(s): Muthu Thiruvengadam, Nagella Praveen and Ill-Min Chung            

April 2012

Introgression of bacterial blight (BB) resistance genes Xa7 and Xa21 into popular restorer line and their hybrids by molecular marker-assisted backcross (MABC) selection scheme

  Yihui1577 is an elite restorer line widely used in hybrid rice production in China, however, both the restorer and their derived hybrids are susceptible to bacterial blight (BB) caused by Xathomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). In order to overcome this problem, we had introgressed two resistant genes Xa7 and Xa21 into Yihui1577 by marker-assisted backcross (MABC) with...

Author(s):   Junying Xu, Jiefeng Jiang, Xiaofei Dong, Jauhar Ali and Tongmin Mou  

April 2012

Concentration of selected heavy metals in water of the Juru River, Penang, Malaysia

  This study was conducted to determine heavy metal lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), Zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) concentrations in water body of the Juru River, Penang, Malaysia. A total of 20 sampling stations were chosen and water at 1 m below the surface was sampled using Van Dorn water sampler in December 2009 and April 2010. Collected water samples were kept in ice and acidified to pH 2 using...

Author(s):   IDRISS, A. A. and AHMAD, A K.  

April 2012

Influence of two inocula levels of Saccharomyces bayanus, BV 818 on fermentation and physico-chemical properties of fermented tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) juice

  The influence of two inocula levels of the yeast Saccharomyces bayanus, BV 818, 0.01 (w/v) and 0.02% (w/v) on physico-chemical properties of fermented tomato juice was investigated. The properties studied include alcoholic strength, dry extract, residual sugar, pH, titratable acidity and volatile acidity. During fermentation, the pH, titratable acidity, brix, CO2 production and changes in phenolic...

Author(s):   John Owusu, Haile Ma, Ernest Ekow Abano, and Felix Narku Engmann,  

April 2012

High-yield production of Streptavidin with native C-terminal in Escherichia coli

  To increase the production yield of functional recombinant streptavidin in Escherichia coli, the effects of host strains and culture conditions on expression of streptavidin with native C terminal (CNSA, amino acid residues 13 to 159) were investigated. Results show that the CNSA, encoded by the CNSA gene, was produced by E. coliBL21(DE3)pLysS strain in the inclusion body with a high yield...

Author(s):   Xuelan Chen, Feng Xu, Fuzhong Peng, Hong Xu, Wei Luo, Hengyi Xu and Yonghua Xiong  

April 2012

Effect of garlic’s mode of administration on erythrocytes and plasma parameters in Wistar rat

  Garlic preparations are recognized as hypolipidemic, cardioprotective and antihypertensive agents. However, there are some discrepancies about the beneficial effects of garlic according to dosage and mode of administration. We aimed to determine the ability of high dosage garlic (5 g/kg bw) to modulate erythrocytes and plasma parameters when administered orally (p.o.)...

Author(s):   Sonia Hamlaoui-Gasmi, Meherzia Mokni, , Nadia Limam, Ferid Limam, Mohamed Amri, Ezzedine Aouani and Lamjed Marzouki,  

April 2012

Chemical modification of β-endoglucanase from Trichoderma viridin by methanol and determination of the catalytic functional groups

  β-Endoglucanase from Trichoderma viride was modified by methanol to explore the catalytic functional groups of cellulase. Crude cellulase was produced, and the conditions of saturation and pH by salting out with ammonium sulfate were optimized. Under optimal conditions, crude cellulase was isolated and purified. The pure cellulase was modified...

Author(s):   Feng Cai#, Yangang Xie#, Xiaochun He and Tiejun Li  

April 2012

Effects of dietary intake of red palm oil on fatty acid composition and lipid profiles in male Wistar rats

  Little is known about the effects of the dietary intake of red palm oil (RPO) on fatty acid composition in the liver of rats. Male Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups were fed with different doses of red palm oil. The control group received no red palm oil; while the experimental groups were fed with 1 ml, 2 ml and 4 ml of red palm oil daily for seven weeks. In the liver of all the groups, palmitic...

Author(s):   A. O. Ayeleso, O. O. Oguntibeju and N. L. Brooks  

April 2012

Effect of terrains on the volatiles of Cabernet Sauvignon wines grown in Loess Plateau region of China

  Volatile compounds of young Cabernet Sauvignon wines from the flat and slope lands grown in Loess Plateau region (China) were investigated in this research. Among the volatile compounds analyzed by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), a total of 43 and 45 volatile compounds were identified and quantified in the flat and slope lands wines,...

Author(s):   Bao Jiang, Zhen-Wen Zhang, and Jun-Xian Zhang  

April 2012

Purification and characterization of α-amylase from Ganoderma tsuage growing in waste bread medium

  The objective of this study was to purify and characterize the α-amylase for industrial perspective. The production of α-amylase through solid-state fermentation byGanoderma tsuage was investigated by using waste bread as substrates. Production parameters were optimized as 2 mL of inoculum size, moisture 50%, additional carbon source (glucose) and nitrogen source (ammonium nitrate) 10:1, 1...

Author(s):   Muhammad Irshad, Zahid Anwar, Muhammad Gulfraz , Hamama Islam Butt,Amir Ejaz, and Haq Nawaz  

April 2012

Extraordinary mullet growth through direct injection of foreign DNA

  The present study aims to produce a genetically modified grey mullet, Mugil cephalus, with accelerated growth through direct injection of foreign DNA isolated from the liver of shark (Squalus acanthias L.) or African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) into muscles of fingerlings fish at the dose of 40 µg/fish. The results show a significant (P≤0.05) improvement in most of the growth performance...

Author(s):   Samy Yehya El-Zaeem,  

April 2012

Comparison of liquid culture methods and effect of temporary immersion bioreactor on growth and multiplication of banana (Musa, cv. Dwarf Cavendish)

  The aim of this study was to investigate the essential oil composition of Psidium cattleianum var. lucidum from South Africa. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and the components were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil. A total of 53 chemical components were identified,...

Author(s):   Farah Farahani and Ahmad Majd  

April 2012

Effects of an ethanolic extract of Garcinia kola on glucose and lipid levels in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

  The effect of Garcinia kola on glucose and lipid levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Ethanolic extract of G. kola was prepared and used for animal treatments. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg body weight). Acute effects of G. kola on glucose were investigated by giving a single dose of distilled...

Author(s):   B. N. Duze, C. R. Sewani-Rusike and B. N. Nkeh-Chungag  

April 2012

Optimization of cholesterol oxidase production by Brevibacterium sp. employing response surface methodology

  An ultrasound-assisted emulsification as a pretreatment for cholesterol oxidaseproduction by submerge fermentation using Brevibacterium sp. in a batch system was studied. Medium improvement for the production employing response surface methodology (RSM) was optimized in this paper. The concentration of Tween-80, cholesterol and the time of ultrasonic pretreatment medium were further...

Author(s):   Shengli Yang and Hui Zhang  

April 2012

Salvia miltiorrhiza inhibits the expressions of transcription factor T-bet (T-bet) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) in the experimental colitis in mice

  Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) is mainly used for the treatment of coronary heart disease in china and it also represses inflammation, but the mechanism is not well known. This study aimed to investigate the effects of SM powder for injection on the expressions of transcription factor T-bet (T-bet) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) in the experimental colitis in mice. Mice were grouped and treated...

Author(s):   Xu Dekui, Wu Simeng, Yu Hongbo, Zheng Changqing, Liu Dongmei and Lin yan  

April 2012

Antimicrobial and antiviral activities against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from marine algae isolated from Qusier and Marsa-Alam Seashore (Red Sea), Egypt

  Diethyl ether, acetone and ethanol extracts of ten marine macroalgae; two belonging to Chlorophyceae (Ulva lactuca and Caulerpa racemosa), two belonging to Rhodophyceae (Acanthophora spicifera and Galaxaura elongata) and six taxa belonging to Phaeophyceae (Liagora farinosa, Cystoseira compressa, Cystoseira myrica, Hydroclathrus clathratus, Turbinaria...

Author(s):   Ibraheem Borie Mohammad Ibraheem, Neveen Abdel-Raouf, Mohamed Sayed Abdel-Hameed and Khaled El-yamany  

April 2012

Chemical composition of essential oil of Psidium cattleianum var. lucidum (Myrtaceae)

  The aim of this study was to investigate the essential oil composition of Psidium cattleianum var. lucidum from South Africa. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and the components were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil. A total of 53 chemical components were identified,...

Author(s):   Raju K. Chalannavar, Venugopala K. Narayanaswamy, Himansu Baijnath, and Bharti Odhav  

April 2012

Regulatory effects of Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus on immunological function in mice

  This paper describes the results of experiments to test the effect of the larvae ofTenebrio molitor Linnaeus on the immune systems of mice. Mice were given a decoction of T. molitor in water at doses of 1.87, 3.75 and 7.50 g/kg/d for four weeks, after which their immune function was studied. The results indicate that T. molitorobservably enhanced the carbon expurgatory index and phagocytic...

Author(s):   Qingfeng Tang, Yin Dai and Benguo Zhou  

April 2012

Effect of dietary protein, lipid and carbohydrate contents on the carcass composition of Cyprinus carpio communis fingerlings

  Fingerlings having average weight of 1.64 ± 0.13 g and length 5.26 ± 0.10 cm were fed on four different formulated feeds and a control feed (each in a triplicate set), 6% of their body weight, three times a day, during 90 days. Feeds were formulated using groundnut oil cake, mustard oil cake, rice bran, wheat bran, fish meal and soybean meal in order to suffice the balanced need of protein and...

Author(s):   Muzaffar Ahmad, Qureshi T. A. and Singh A. B.  

April 2012

Effect of dietary protein, lipid and carbohydrate contents on the viscera composition and organ Indices of Cyprinus carpio communis fingerlings

  This study aimed to determine a feed formulation with the best protein to energy ratio that would result in a better viscera composition and organ indices (OI) of Cyprinus carpio communis. Fingerlings having average weight of 1.64 ± 0.13 g and length of 5.26 ± 0.10 cm were fed on four different formulated feeds and a control feed (each in a triplicate set), 6% of their body weight, three...

Author(s):   Muzaffar Ahmad, T. A. Qureshi and A. B. Singh  

April 2012

Effect of dietary protein, lipid and carbohydrate contents on the nutrient and energy utilization and digestibility of Cyprinus carpio communis fingerlings

  Fingerlings having average weight 1.64 ± 0.13 g and length 5.26 ± 0.10 cm were fed on four different formulated feeds and a control feed (each in a triplicate set), 6% of their body weight, three times a day, during 90 days. Feeds were formulated using ground nut oil cake, mustard oil cake, rice bran, wheat bran, fish meal and soybean meal in order to suffice the balanced need of protein and...

Author(s):   Muzaffar Ahmad, T. A. Qureshi and Singh A. B.  

April 2012

Preparation of immunoaffinity column for rapid purification of human DNA polymerase delta and its subassemblies

  Mammalian deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) polymerase delta (pol δ) is well characterized as a tightly associated heterotetrameric complex. It is thought to play a central role in chromosomal DNA replication and various DNA repair processes. However, the availability of highly purified active pol δ becomes one of the major barriers for its in-depth functional and structural analysis. In this work, a...

Author(s):   Xiao Li, Huiqing Chen, Lei Zhang, Liu Liu, Yujue Wang, Qian Zhang, Xiaoyong Liu, Yuanqing He, Yan Chen, Keping Chen and Yajing Zhou  

April 2012

Variation in quantitative characters of faba bean after seed irradiation and associated molecular changes

  The successful use of faba bean breeding for broomrape resistance requires the existence of genetic variation. Unfortunately, the desired variation is often lacking. However, radiation can be used to induce mutations and thereby generate genetic variation from which desired mutants may be selected. This investigation was carried out to study the effects of gamma radiation on various quantitative characters in...

Author(s):   Sonia MEJRI, Yassine MABROUK, Marie VOISIN, Philippe DELAVAULT, Philippe SIMIER, Mouldi SAIDI and Omrane BELHADJ  

April 2012

Decolorization of azo dyes by Pycnoporus sanguineus and Trametes membranacea

  In the present work, decolorization of dyes Orange II and Black V by the fungiPycnoporus sanguineus and Trametes membranacea was assessed at six, 12 and 18 days, through fractional design, with a total of 16 trials, statistically represented by 26-2. The fungi were grown in Erlenmeyer flasks containing the malt and King media supplemented with 0.05% m/v of the dyes Orange II and Black...

Author(s):   Da Paz, E. S. L., Paz Júnior, F. B., Neto, B. B. and Cavalcanti, M. A. Q.  

April 2012

Effect of cadmium chloride and ascorbic acid exposure on the vital organs of freshwater Cyprinid, Labeo rohita

  The present study was carried out to evaluate the impact of sub lethal concentrations of heavy metal, cadmium chloride (CdCl2.H2O), ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and their combination on Labeo rohita. The effect was investigated on the basis of histopathological examinations of control and experimental groups exposed to heavy metal. The acute semi statistical toxicity test for L. rohita revealed 96 h...

Author(s):   Abdul Latif, Muhammad Ali, Rahila Kaoser, Rehana Iqbal, Kashif Umer, Muhammad Latif, Shazia Qadir and Furhan Iqbal  

April 2012

Antibacterial spectrum of traditionally used medicinal plants of Hazara, Pakistan

  The use of medicinal plants for treatment of infections is an old age practice. On the basis of this important practice, this study was initiated to evaluate the antibacterial effects of medicinal plants, commonly used by the community of Hazara region of Pakistan. Antibacterial spectrum of traditionally used medicinal plants was determined by disc diffusion method under incubation period of 24 to 48 h at...

Author(s):   Ihtisham Bukhari, Mukhtiar Hassan, Fida M Abassi, Yasmeen Shakir, Asfandyar Khan, Sohail Ahmed , Rabia Masood , Zeba G Burki,  Muhammad Afzal, Uzma Khan, Faisal Shahzad and Sajjad Hussain  

April 2012

Supplementation of broiler feed with leaves of Vernonia amygdalina and Azadirachta indica protected birds naturally infected with Eimeria sp.

  Anticoccidial efficacy of the herbal mixture of Vernonia amygdalina (VA 10%) andAzadirachta indica (AI 10%) was tested against naturally infected broiler coccidiosis. A total of 100 four week old broilers naturally infected with coccidiosis were divided into five treatment groups based on the number of coccidian oocyst they contained. Group I which contained 20,700 oocyst counts served as a...

Author(s):   Oyagbemi, T. O. and Adejinmi, J. O.