African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12213

Table of Content: 24 May 2010; 9(21)

May 2010

A comparative study on the biochemical effect of ocular and oral cadmium administration in rabbits

  The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of oral and ocular exposure to cadmium for one and three months on some biochemical parameters using rabbits as animal model. The results obtained show that the kidney, femoral muscle, femur and brain of rabbits ocularly exposed to Cd had a significantly higher concentration of Cd relative to that of those administered the metal orally after both...

Author(s): Samuel Ogheneovo Asagba

May 2010

Generation and characterization of a monoclonal antibody to penicillic acid from Penicillium cyclopium

  Penicillic acid is one of the main mycotoxins in moldy feedstuff and has toxic effect on livestock and poultry and probably humans due to food chain transmission. The objective of this study was to generate and characterize a monoclonal antibody to penicillic acid for the efficient detection of penicillic acid from Penicillium cyclopiumby immunological methods. To this end, penicillic acid was conjugated...

Author(s): Hongyu Lei, Zuping He, Hui Yuan, Jing Wu, Lixin Wen, Rongfang Li, Ming Zhang, Liyun Yuan and Zhihang Yuan

May 2010

Genetic variation of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) collections from China detected by morphological traits, RAPD and SSR

  White clover is an important legume naturalized in China. But genetic variation of Chinese local white clover germplasm has not been reported. There is no information for parents’ selection and genetic resource conservation. The objective of this study was to investigate and characterize genetic variation of ten local white clover germplasms collected from different geographical regions of China....

Author(s): Xian Zhang, Ying-jun Zhang, Rong Yan, Jian-guo Han, Fuzeng-Hong, Jian-hong Wang, and Kai Cao

May 2010

Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms associated with periodontal diseases in Turkish adults

  Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) is involved in key steps of immune response. Genetic factors predispose individuals to periodontal disease. This study's aim was to explore the association between NOS3 gene polymorphisms and clinical parameters in patients with periodontal disease. Genomic DNA was obtained from the peripheral blood of 23 subjects with aggressive periodontitis (AgP), 26 with...

Author(s): Kamile Erciyas, Sacide Pehlivan, Tugce Sever, Mehri Igci, Mustafa Pehlivan, Ahmet Arslan and Recep Orbak

May 2010

Genetic diversity and population structure in Meconopsis quintuplinervia (Papaveraceae)

  Meconopsis quintuplinervia is regarded as a valuable medicinal plant in Tibetan medicinal system. This species is distributed in Qinghai, Xizang, Sichuan, Shanxi ,Gansu and Hubei provinces of the People's Republic of China. Genetic variation of 16 M. quintuplinervia populations sampled from Qinghai and Gansu of China was examined by random amplified polymorphic DNA markers (RAPDs). In...

Author(s): Shibing Yang, Xuefeng Lu, Runrong Ye, Yi Li, Yubi Zhou, Pengpeng Yue, Jianzhong Zhao, Changxian Zhang and Min Peng

May 2010

Genotype x Environment interaction for quality traits in durum wheat cultivars adapted to different environments

The quality traits of durum wheat are important for the utilization by the industries. These traits may be influenced by genotype and interaction of genotype and environment (GxE). To In this study, we evaluate the effects of genotype, environment and genotype x environment interaction on quality traits such as vitreousness, SDS sedimentation test, yellow pigment index, protein content and test weight, twelve Moroccan...

Author(s): M. Taghouti, F. Gaboun, N. Nsarellah, R. Rhrib, M. El-Haila, M. Kamar, F. Abbad-Andaloussi and S. M. Udupa

May 2010

Rastrelliger systematics inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences

  The fish genus Rastrelliger is composed of three morphologically recognized species; Rastrelliger kanagurta, Rastrelliger brachysoma and Rastrelliger faughni.In this study, cytochrome b gene sequencing was applied to address the systematics and phylogenetic relationships of these species. In agreement with previous morphological data, the results corroborate...

Author(s): Jamsari Amirul Firdaus Jamaluddin, Abu Talib Ahmad, Samsudin Basir, Masazurah Abdul Rahim and Siti Azizah Mohd Nor,

May 2010

Genomic affinity between Oryza sativa and Oryza brachyantha as revealed by in situ hybridization and chromosome pairing

  Genomic affinity between Oryza sativa (2n = 24 AA), and Oryza brachyantha (2n = 24 FF) was assessed by using three strategies: genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), meiotic chromosome pairing, pollen and spikelet sterility. The chromosome pairing was examined in pollen mother cells of O. brachyantha, O. sativa and the hybrid between O. sativa and O....

Author(s): F. M. Abbasi, A. H. Shah, F. Perveen, M. Afzal, M. Sajid, R. Masood and F. Nawaz

May 2010

Estimation of divergence times for major lineages of galliform birds: Evidence from complete mitochondrial genome sequences

  Determining an absolute timescale for avian evolutionary history has been recently challenged by the relaxed molecular clock methods, that rates of molecular evolution can vary significantly among organisms. In this study, we used relaxed molecular clocks to date the divergence of major lineages of Galliformes based on complete mitochondrial genomes. A nucleotide dataset of 13 concatenated protein-coding...

Author(s): Xian-Zhao Kan, Xi-Feng Li, Zu-Pei Lei, Lei Chen, Hui Gao, Zu-Yu Yang, Jian-Ke Yang, Zhi-Chun Guo, Lei Yu, Li-Qin Zhang and Chao-Ju Qian

May 2010

Carry-over effect of Thidiazuron on banana in vitro proliferation at different culture cycles and light incubation conditions

  Thidiazuron (TDZ) is an active cytokinin that was shown to induce increased shoot proliferation and habituation in black walnut, Phaseolus lunatus and evergreen azalea, which are tree species but has not been widely investigated in bananas. Unlike other cytokines commonly in use that are adenine-based, TDZ is a urea based cytokinin and therefore is non-degradable by cytokinin-oxidase enzymes in...

Author(s): A. M. Makara, P. R. Rubaihayo and M. J. S. Magambo

May 2010

Temperature requirement of different isolates of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolated from mango

  Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. and Sacc. is one of the most important diseases of mango. During survey, the disease samples of fruits affected by anthracnose were collected from Arambakam, Dapoli, Hassan, Hessarghatta, Lucknow, Raichur, Tiruvur and Tumkur, and isolations were made. Studies were conducted to find out the temperature requirement of different...

Author(s): C. G. Sangeetha and R. D. Rawal

May 2010

Regeneration of green plants from seed-derived callus cultures of Poa

  Plants were regenerated from callus derived from entire mature seeds of three Poa pratensis cultivars (Kentucky bluegrass, Fylking and Baron) and one Chinese native species, Poa sphendyLodes L. Kentucky bluegrass showed the highest regenerating capacity of the four cultivars. Addition of low concentration (0.2 mg/l) of (6-benzyladenine) 6-BA to Murashige and Skoog (MS)...

Author(s): Li Zong, Lu-Ming Ding, Xian Xue and Tao Wang

May 2010

Seed germination and in vitro plant regeneration of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth

  Parkia biglobosa is an important leguminous forest species which is being threatened of going into extinction in Senegal. To preserve this genetic resource of great economic value, studies on germination were carried out and in vitroconservation option through tissue culture technique was adopted. 100% of germination rate was recorded 2 days after 5 - 6 h of concentrated H2SO4treatments and...

Author(s): Sambe, M. A. N., Sagna, M. and Sy, M. O.

May 2010

Evaluation of consumers’ choice of wooden dining furniture in Southwestern Nigeria: A market strategy for furniture manufacturers and marketers

  This study evaluated consumers’ choice of wooden dining furniture in Southwestern Nigeria to provide information that could guide business decisions by manufacturers and marketers of wooden dining furniture. Data were collected using semi-structured questionnaires administered on 345 randomly selected respondents between July and December, 2008. These were analyzed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA...

Author(s): O. G. E. Arowosoge and N. T. Tee

May 2010

Prospects in the use of Ficus polita as a local ruminant feed

  The proximate as well as the mineral compositions of Ficus polita and some anti nutritional factors were determined in order to justify the local use of this plant as a feedstuff especially for ruminant animals and to establish the possible wide scale utilization of this plant in the feed industry. The proximate, mineral and phytonutrient compositions of the plant were determined using standard...

Author(s): M. M. Ndamitso, J. O. Jacob, S. Idris and T. Jimoh

May 2010

Effects of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) rice on biodiversity of weed in paddy fields

  To detect potential changes in properties of weed communities in fields of GMHT rice Bar68-1, trials were carried out from 2007-2008 at Changsha, China with conventional indica rice D68 served as control. The average richness of weed community measured by species accumulation curve tended to be identical in the fields of Bar68-1 and D68 as the number of sampling points increased. There...

Author(s): Xianbin Jiang,, Xingrong Wu and Guoying Xiao

May 2010

Structural analysis and functional characteristics of greenhouses in the Mediterranean region of Turkey

  This study was carried out to determine the structural analysis and functional characteristics of the greenhouses in the Mediterranean region where 87% of the greenhouse production area in Turkey is concentrated. Information about types, material and construction properties, placement and arrangement of greenhouses in the research area was gathered by questionnaires; then greenhouses in enterprises were...

Author(s): Nefise Yasemin Emekli, Berna Kendirli and Ahmet Kurunc

May 2010

Bioremediation of chromium in tannery effluent by microbial consortia

  Chromium is the most toxic and common among the heavy metal pollutants of industrial effluents. In the present work the chromium remediation ability of Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in consortia and in their immobilized forms was studied and their efficiencies were compared. Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and diphenyl carbazide method was...

Author(s): J. Fathima Benazir, R. Suganthi, D. Rajvel, M. Padmini Pooja and B. Mathithumilan

May 2010

Microbial production of polyhydroxy alkanotes (PHA) from Alcaligens spp. and Pseudomonas oleovorans using different carbon sources

  Plastics have resistance to biological breakdown that result in its accumulation in the environment. This emphasizes the need to search for biodegradable polymer, which is easily disposable and degradable. Bacteria synthesize and accumulate polyhydroxy alkanote (PHA) as carbon source under limiting conditions of nutrients. The effect of different nutrient conditions on production of PHA by Alcaligens...

Author(s): Amutha Santhanam and Sreenivasan Sasidharan

May 2010

Kinetic model for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production by Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava and verification of growth conditions

  A kinetic model that describes microbial growth, biopolymer production and substrate consumption is used to predict the performance of batch fermentation ofHydrogenophaga pseudoflava. H. pseudoflava DSMZ 1034 is useful in synthesizing polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs).The experimental data was also fitted with the logistic equation that can provide adequate description for PHA synthesized by H....

Author(s): M. Mahmoudi, M. Sharifzadeh Baei, G. D. Najafpour, F. Tabandeh and H. Eisazadeh

May 2010

Microbial studies of table scrapings from meat stalls in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria: Implications on meat hygiene

  Tables used to display meat for sale in nine different markets in Ibadan Metropolis were microbiologically examined for their implication on meat hygiene. Twenty seven strains of bacteria and eight strains of fungi were isolated and identified. They were identified on the basis of metabolic and physiological features while simple crystal violet staining was used for observing cell size and shape. The samples...

Author(s): Fasanmi, G. O., Olukole, S. G. and Kehinde, O. O.

May 2010

Antibacterial activity of garlic and lime on isolates of extracted carious teeth

  Inhibitory activity of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Linn.) on seven bacterial species (Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus,Norcadia asteroides, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus,Staphylococcus aureus and Veillonella alcaligens) isolated from 240 extracted, carious teeth were investigated using standard techniques. The...

Author(s): U. B. Owhe-Ureghe, D. A. Ehwarieme and D. O. Eboh

May 2010

Performance of baker's yeast produced using date syrup substrate on Arabic bread quality

  Baker's yeast was produced from three selected baker's yeast strains using date syrup as a substrate at low and high flow rate compared to those produced using molasses substrates. Performance of the produced baker's yeasts on Arabic bread quality was investigated. Baking tests showed a positive relationship between total Arabic bread quality and yeast gassing power. This relationship could be...

Author(s): Al-Eid, S. M., Al-jasass, F. M. and Hamad S. H.

May 2010

A comparative study on the storage of yam chips (gbodo) and yam flour (elubo)

  Comparative study on the storability of yam chips and yam flour was carried out on traditionally processed and stored yam chips (gbodo) and yam flour (elubo) over a period of three months. Their keeping qualities were accessed at intervals by determining the nutritive qualities and the microbial properties of both samples. During the three months of storage, the yam flour showed greater deterioration with...

Author(s): A. O. Ojokoh and R. A. O. Gabriel

May 2010

Phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of three Amaranthus plant species

  This study investigated the phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and methanol leave extracts of Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus spinosus and Amaranthus caudatus. The microorganisms assayed for antimicrobial activity were: the gram-positive Staphylococcus aureusand Bacillus spp, the gram-negative Escherichia...

Author(s): Z. C. Maiyo, R. M. Ngure, J. C. Matasyoh and R. Chepkorir

May 2010

The immune enhancer, thymoquinone, and the hope of utilizing the immune system of Aedes caspius against disease agents

  Insects have developed an efficient defence system against microorganisms, which involves both humoral and cellular mechanisms. Recent studies on insect defence system are aimed at utilizing it in the battle against mosquito-borne diseases. However, mounting immune responses of insects has proved to impose fitness costs. The current study was conducted to test the costs of enhancing the immune responses...

Author(s): Ashraf M. Ahmed, Ebtesam M. Al-Olayan, Mourad A. M. Aboul-Soud and Abdulaziz A. Al-Khedhairy

May 2010

Comparison of the effects of UV-A radiation on Leptospira interrogan serovar Bataviae, Canicola and Pomona

  Motivated by the lack of related studies and an insufficient understanding of the response of pathogenic spirochetes, including leptospira to ultraviolet-A (UV-A) (or other stresses), we comparatively studied the effects of UV-A radiation on theLeptospira interrogans serovar Bataviae, Canicola and Pomona. The main purpose of this work was to investigate the effects of UV-A irradiation—both...

Author(s): Sudarat Chadsuthi, Jirasak Wong-ekkabut, Wannapong Triampo,, Galayanee Doungchawee and Darapond Triampo,,

May 2010

Extraction of proteins from yeast cell wall

 The proteins from yeast cell wall were extracted by autolysis and depositing in turn. The results show that the change of pH value greatly affects the yield of the final product. The content of obtained crude proteins is maximal (more than 66%) when the autolysis time is 3 h, and pH value is 6 - 7. The extracted proteins can be of social and economic benefits.   Key words: Yeast cell wall,...

Author(s): G. L. Huang

May 2010

Screening of some plant extracts against some skin diseases caused by oxidative stress and microorganisms

  Eleven plants were selected to evaluate their antioxidant and antimicrobial potentiality against some skin diseases caused by some bacteria and fungi. The dry powder was extracted in methanol by cold percolation method. Free radical scavenging activities like diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide anion (O2−) scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical (·OH) scavenging activity, reducing capacity...

Author(s): Sumitra Chanda and Yogesh Baravalia

May 2010

Protective role of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (calyx) against potassium bromate induced tissue damage in wistar rats

  The protective role of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (calyx) against potassium bromate induced tissue damage was investigated in rat tissues (brain,kidney, stomach, spleen, heart and liver). The rats were divided into four groups. Group A was administered with 0.25 M sucrose only (base line control), Group B with 60 mg/kg body weight of potassium bromate, and Group C with 250 mg/kg body...

Author(s): Josiah, Sunday J., Omotuyi O., Oluyemi, K. A., Ezea, U. Isioma, Uhunmwangho, E. S., Nwangwu, Spencer C. O., Oyesola, Olusoji A. and Njoya Helen

May 2010

Effects of metronidazole and probiotics oligosaccharide on bacterial translocation in protein malnutrition

  The present study aims to evaluate the effects of metronidazole, probiotics oligosaccharide on indigenous mi croflora and bacterial translocation (BT) in protein malnourished rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: protein malnourished rats PM (group1, n = 10) were fed with maize only, protein malnourished rats (group 2, n = 10) were received metronidazole and protein malnourished rats...

Author(s): Benakriche Ben Mehel, Boudali Souad, Gorine H, Bekada Ahmed, Philippe Pochart, Saïdi Djamel and Kheroua Omar