African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12212

Table of Content: 2 May 2008; 7(9)

May 2008

Pharmacokinetic changes of halofantrine in experimentally-induced diabetes mellitus following oral drug administration

  It was hypothesized in this study that alterations in plasma lipoprotein profile and disturbed gastrointestinal motility as observed in diabetes mellitus may influence the disposition of halofantrine (HF), a highly lipophilic antimalarial drug. Therefore, using a rat model of diabetes mellitus induced by administration of alloxan monohydrate, the effects of the disease on the pharmacokinetics of HF was...

Author(s): Michael O. Daniyan, Sharon I. Omoruyi, Cyprian O. Onyeji, Ezekiel O. Iwalewa, Efere M. Obuotor

May 2008

Potential for domestication and commercialization of Hoodia and Opuntia species in Botswana

  The species Hoodia (Apocynaceae) and Opuntia (prickly pear) (Cactaceae) are highly efficient in water use and belong to the Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) group of plants. These plant species are quite abundant in Botswana especially in the Kalahari Desert, prickly pear being the most dominant even though they have received very little commercial attention in the country. Elsewhere in...

Author(s): Tibe, O., Modise, D. M. and Mogotsi, K. K.

May 2008

Genetically modified food -The dilemma of Africa

  The entire subject of GM organisms and GM technology is saddled with different opinions, considerable frustrations, and a growing sense of ethical and environment concerns, globally. The question then is: should opinions and perceptions about GM crops stand the way of technologies that can potentially improve the survival and quality of life for millions of people in Africa? Scientists must help provide an...

Author(s): Daniel Kwaku A. Asante

May 2008

Haematological studies on the ethanolic stem bark extract of Pterocarpus erinaceus poir (fabaceae)

  Pterocarpus erinaceus (fabaceae) is used in the Nigerian folk medicine as well as in other African savanna countries to treat diarrhea, dysentery, urethral discharges, fever, and as an ingredient in abortifacient prescriptions. It is also used in arresting bleeding and as a dressing on ring worm of the scalp. The acute toxicity profile as well as possible haemostatic activity of the ethanolic stem bark...

Author(s): Salawu OA, Aliyu M and Tijani AY

May 2008

Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic and methanolic extracts of the leaf and bark of Khaya senegalensis

  Khaya senegalensis, a member of the family Meliaceae, is a plant commonly used by the local people of Nasarawa State of Nigeria for the treatment of dysentery, mucous diarrhoea and wound infections. The leaves and the bark of the plant were screened for their phytochemical properties and antimicrobial activity. Ethanol was used for the extraction of the active compounds. The test organisms...

Author(s): Makut, M. D., Gyar, S. D., Pennap, G. R. I. and Anthony, P.

May 2008

Antidiarrhoeal activities of aqueous extract of Stereospermum kunthianum (Cham, Sandrine Petit) stem bark in rodents

  The antidiarrhoeal effect of the aqueous extract of Stereospermum kunthianum(Cham, Sandrine Petit) stem bark was investigated in in vivo experimentally-induced diarrhoeal models using mice and rats. The extract (100, 200 or 400 mg/kg) dose-dependently reduced castor oil-induced intestinal transit in mice, with the greatest effect observed with the 200 mg/kg body weight of the extract. The...

Author(s): F. P. Ching, E. K. I. Omogbai, R. I. Ozolua and S. O. Okpo

May 2008

Comparison of some yield and quality criteria in organically and conventionally-grown lettuce

  The simplest definition organic farming is a production system, which excludes synthetic inputs and resorts to external inputs only where the system cannot be sustained by internal recycling. Recent studies comparing conventional and organic farming have shown an increase in organic matter, nutrient content, and microbial biomass in organically managed soils. The present study was undertaken to evaluate how...

Author(s): Polat E.,  Demir H. and Onus A. N

May 2008

Causes of low seed set in the natural tetraploid Trifolium pratense L. (Fabaceae)

  Light and electron microscopic examinations were done at the cell level to research which factors would effect seed formation and the amount of effectiveness of natural tetraploid Trifolium pratense L. variety E2. In this investigation, origin of factors handicapping the seed formation and the results were determined by examining the development of ovule at six different phases to ovary size from...

Author(s): H. Nurhan Bakar Buyukkartal

May 2008

In vitro plant regeneration from embryogenic cell suspension culture of Astragalus chrysochlorus (Leguminoseae)

  In vitro plant regeneration was achieved from embryogenic cell suspension culture of Astragalus chrysochlorus. When 30-day-old aseptically grown seedlings were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 0.1 mg/l α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) plus 1.0 mg/l 6-benzyladenine (BA), friable callus was formed within two weeks from the mesocotyl of the seedling. After three...

Author(s): Neslihan Turgut-Kara and Şule Arı ,

May 2008

Research on the effect of phosphorus and molybdenum applications on the yield and yield parameters in lentil (Lens culinaris Medic.)

  Lentil is one of the oldest domesticated crops grown and used mostly in human diets in Turkey. The trial was laid out in a factorial randomized complete block design with three replications. Sazak-91 lentil variety was applied at three different phosphorus levels (0, 30 and 60 kg ha-1) and four different molybdenum levels (0, 2, 4 and 6 g/kg seed) in 2005 - 2006 and 2006 - 2007. In the study, the effect of...

Author(s): Yesim Togay, Necat Togay and Yusuf Dogan

May 2008

Chemical composition of essential oil from the peel of Satsuma mandarin

  The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the peel of Satsuma mandarin was analyzed by GC/MS analysis. As a result, 28 components were isolated. Among the 25 components identified, the monoterpenes hydrocarbons group was predominant, accounting for 86.62% (w/w) of the total oil. Of which, limonene was the most abundant (67.44%), followed by β-myrcene (7.15%), 3-carene (4.4%),...

Author(s): Neng-guo Tao, Yue-jin Liu, Ji-hong Zhang, Hong-yan Zeng, Yu-fang Tang and Miao-ling Zhang

May 2008

Effect of pot size, planting date and genotype on mini-tuber production of Marfona potato cultivar

  This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of pot size, planting date and type of genotype on mini-tuber production of Marfona potato cultivar (Solanum tuberosum L.) in greenhouse conditions.  Four genotypes (M-129, M-128P, M-127P and M-124P) originated from virus free sprouts and a genotype of the same cultivar (Marfona) originated from apical meristem, in 3 sizes of pot and 3 planting date...

Author(s): G. R. Balali, M. R. Hadi, P. Yavari, H. Bidram, A. G. Naderi and A. Eslami

May 2008

Antagonistic activity of selected strains of Bacillus thuringiensis against Rhizoctonia solani of chili pepper

  The aim of this work was to determine, in vitro, the antagonistic effectiveness of 60 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis against damping-off and root and stem rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani. The strains were obtained from the International Collection of Entomopathogenic Bacillus at the FCB-UANL. During the in vitro dual culture assay only 16 of the strains displayed an...

Author(s): Virgilio Mojica-Marín, Hugo A. Luna-Olvera, Carlos Fco. Sandoval-Coronado, Benito Pereyra-Alférez, Lilia H. Morales-Ramos, Carlos E. Hernández-Luna and  Omar G. Alvarado-Gomez.

May 2008

Adoption of improved agricultural technologies disseminated via radio farmer programme by farmers in Enugu State, Nigeria

  The study determined farmers’ adoption of improved agricultural technologies disseminated via radio farmer programme in Enugu State, Nigeria. An interview schedule was used to collect data from a sample of 135 farmers. Results show that co-farmers and farm broadcast were the major sources of information to greater proportion of the farmers. Data on relevance of the technologies disseminated showed that...


May 2008

Phylogenetic relationships within and among Brassica species from RAPD loci associated with blackleg resistance

  The genus Brassica comprises economically important oilseed and vegetable crops. Their susceptibility to fungal diseases such as blackleg causes yield loss. In this study, thirty accessions from USDA germplasm collection representing two diploid Brassica species (Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea var. virids) and fifteen tetraploid cultivars (Brassica napus) from the...

Author(s): Anthony O. Ananga, Ernst Cebert, Khairy Soliman Ramesh Kantety, Koffi Konan, and Joel W. Ochieng

May 2008

Molecular and pomological diversity among pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars in Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey

  Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is an important fruit species for Turkey where many cultivars are being cultivated. In this study, we determined the fruit characteristics and RAPD band patterns of six local cultivars from Hatay, Turkey. Our results demonstrated that there is a great level of morphological variation. The principle component analysis of 18 quantitative fruit characteristics revealed that...

Author(s): Coşkun Durgaç, Mustafa Özgen, Özhan Şimşek, Yıldız Aka Kaçar, Yelda Kıyga, Semih Çelebi, Kazim Gündüz and Sedat Serçe

May 2008

Isolation and characterization of LHY homolog gene expressed in flowering tissues of Tectona grandis (teak)

  Floral initiation of teak through molecular biology approach is being studied for better understanding of teak flower development. Through PCR subtractive hybridization method, LHY homolog gene has been isolated from teak flowering tissues. The full-length cDNA of the gene was 2948 base pair (bp) and potentially encoded for 768 amino acids. It was named Tectona grandis LHY (Tg-LHY), as the...

Author(s): B. Norlia, M. Norwati, A. Norwati, H. Mohd Rosli and M. S. Norihan

May 2008

Development of sodium alginate and konkoli gum-grafted-polyacrylamide blend membrane: optimization of grafting conditions

  This experiment is a continuation of our effort to develop a blend membrane of sodium alginate and “konkoli” gum-g-polyacrylamide (KG-g-PAAm) for bioremediation of wastewater. The effect of graft reaction conditions on the percentage graft yield in the graft copolymerization was investigated. It was observed that grafting parameters such as acrylamide (AM), ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN),...

Author(s): Osemeahon, S. A., Barminas T.J., Aliyu, B. A. and Nkafamiya, I. I.

May 2008

Pre-screening of filamentous fungi isolated from a contaminated site in Southern Brazil for bioaugmentation purposes

  Four Aspergillus sp. strains were isolated from contaminated soil in Rio Grande, Southern Brazil. The biodegradation potential of these strains was evaluated using a simple method involving the determination of colony growth rates on plates containing a specific hydrocarbon or petroleum derivative as the only carbon source. The LEBM1 strain presented a high tolerance level to BTX. It was the only...

Author(s): Elisane Odriosolla dos Santos, Célia Francisca Centeno da Rosa, Cátia Tavares dos Passos, Ana Virgínia Ladeira Sanzo, Janaína Fernandes de Medeiros Burkert, Susana Juliano Kalil and Carlos André Veiga Burkert

May 2008

Preliminary studies on the production of endo-1,4-b–D-glucanases activity produced by Enterobacter cloacae

  We report the production and characterization of endo-β-1, 4-glucanase from isolated phytopathogenic bacterium Enterobacter cloacae. The bacterium was grown on different carbon sources including carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and 2% Avicel, for the production of endo-1, 4-β –D-glucanases enzyme. E. cloacaeproduced maximum levels of cellulases after 96 h of fermentation. Higher...

Author(s): Amtul Jamil Sami, Muhammad Awais, A. R. Shakoori

May 2008

Biodegradability of diesel and biodiesel blends

  The biodegradability of pure diesel and biodiesel and blends with different proportions of biodiesel (2% (commercial); 5% and 20%) was evaluated employing the respirometric method and the redox indicator 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP) test. In the former, experiments simulating the contamination of natural environments (soil from a petrol station or water from a river) were carried out in Bartha...

Author(s):   Adriano Pinto Mariano, Richard Clayton Tomasella, Luciano Marcondes de Oliveira, Jonas Contiero and Dejanira de Franceschi de Angelis  

May 2008

Study of heavy metal in sewage sludge and in Chinese cabbage grown in soil amended with sewage sludge

  The study was performed to investigate the heavy metal content and availability for crops in sewage sludge and its accumulation in Chinese cabbage grown in sewage sludge amended soil. We determined the total and chemical fraction of As, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mg and Mn in sewage sludge and the total content of these metals in Chinese cabbage grown in soil amended with sewage sludge. Total content of all...

Author(s): Pei-Fang Wang,, Song-He Zhang,, Chao Wang,, Jun Hou,, Peng-Cheng Guo, and Zhi-ping Lin,

May 2008

Antioxidative and antibacterial activity of the methanol extract of Artemisia anomala S. Moore

  The antibacterial and antioxidative activities of the methanol extract of Artemisia anomala S. Moore were investigated. The methanol extract was subjected to screening for their possible antioxidative activities by using 2, 2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and β-carotene bleaching methods. In the former case, the methanol extract was found to have better antioxidative activity than...

Author(s): Huang Guangrong, Jiang Jiaxin, Dai Dehui

May 2008

Nutritional survey, staple foods composition and the uses of savoury condiments in Douala, Cameroon

  Malnutrition and micronutrients deficiencies are serious public health problems in Cameroon as in other developing countries. Proteins, lipids, crude fibres and carbohydrates content of 15 recipes selected after a survey of 500 families were determined. Total contents ranged between 9.25 ± 0.53 and 16.86 ± 8.85 g/100 g DW for...

Author(s): Marie M. Kana Sop, M. Fotso, I. Gouado, E. Tetanye and P. H. Amvam Zollo

May 2008

Production and refining of Dacryodes edulis “native pear” seeds oil

  The suitability of native pear Dacryodes edulis seeds as a source of good quality vegetable oil was investigated. Oil was extracted from the dried seeds by simple solvent extraction process with hexane. Extracted oil was degummed using 0.2% H3PO4 or Na2CO3 solutions, and then bleached with activated carbon. Chemical (acid value (AV), saponification number (SN), peroxide value (PV), and...

Author(s): Arisa, N. U.  and Lazarus, A.

May 2008

Phenotypic variability among strains of Pasteurella multocida isolated from avian, bovine, caprine, leporine and ovine origin

  Phenotypic diversity among 69 field isolates plus 3 vaccine strains previously identified as Pasteurella multocida were investigated by extended phenotypic characterization. The field isolates were obtained in Nigeria from chickens (15 isolates), quail (5 isolates), cattle (31 isolates), goats (7 isolates), sheep (8 isolates), rabbits (3 isolates) and the vaccine strains (3 isolates), which are used...

Author(s): Sarah O. Ekundayo, Moses O. Odugbo, Atanda O. Olabode and Philip A. Okewole

May 2008

Performance and carcass characteristics of broilers fed boiled cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L Walp) and or black common bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris) meal diets

  A total of 256 broiler chicks were used to evaluate the effect of replacing meat meal with boiled cowpea and/or black common bean on the performance and carcass characteristics of broilers. At the starter phase, boiled cowpea and or black common bean meal constituted 11% of S1, S2 and a 1:1 ratio of boiled cowpea and black common (S3) diets replacing 100% of meat meal and 25% of fish meal. For the finisher...

Author(s): Henry Fualefac Defang, Alexis Teguia, J. Awah-Ndukum, Augustave Kenfack, Ferdinand Ngoula and F. Metuge

May 2008

Effects of Aspergillus niger treated Shea butter cake based diets on nutrient intake and weight gain of Red Sokoto goat

  Effects of feed intake, weight gain and digestibility when growing Red Sokoto goats consuming Aspergillus niger treated and untreated shea-butter cake (SBC) were determined. Twenty five Red Sokoto goats in a completely randomized design model with 56 d periods consumed diet A (control, without SBC), B (15%Aspergillus treated SBC), C (15% untreated SBC), D (7.5% Aspergillus treated...

Author(s): M. A. Belewu and A. A. Yahaya

May 2008

Antibacterial substance produced by Streptomyces sp. No. 87

  An antimicrobial substance produced by Streptomyces sp. No. 87 was partially purified and studied for its antibacterial characteristics using the swab paper disc technique. The cell-free culture filtrate showed antibacterial activity against several species of pathogens including Gram-positive bacteria, i.e. Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, B. subtilis TISTR 008, B....

Author(s): Kanlayani Charoensopharat, Petcharat Thummabenjapone, Pisan Sirithornand Sompong Thammasirirak

May 2008

Kinetic models of cell growth, substrate utilization and bio-decolorization of distillery wastewater by Aspergillus fumigatus UB260

  Bio-decolorization kinetic studies of distillery effluent in a batch culture were conducted using Aspergillus fumigatus. A simple model was proposed using the Logistic Equation for the growth, Leudeking-Piret kinetics for bio-decolorization, and also for substrate utilization. The proposed models appeared to provide a suitable description for each parameter devoted to the growth phase. The biomass yield...

Author(s): Mohammad Pazouki, Ghasem Najafpour and Mohammad Raouf Hosseini