African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12218

Table of Content: 3 September 2008; 7(17)

September 2008

Assessing plasma glucose and lipid levels, body weight and acute toxicity following oral administration of an aqueous ethanolic extract of Parinari curatellifolia Planch, (Chrysobalanaceae) seeds in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats

  The study was aimed at evaluating the safety and hypoglycaemic effects of Parinari curatellifolia seeds used in the treatment of diabetes. The plasma glucose level and other biochemical parameters, body weight and liver, heart, renal and acute toxicities were assessed following  oral administration of an aqueous ethanol (80%) extract of the seeds in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. Toxicity of...

Author(s): Steve O Ogbonnia, A. Adekunle, Stella O Olagbende-Dada, Emmanuel N Anyika, Veronica N Enwuru and Moses Orolepe 

September 2008

Biotechnological potential of natural food grade biocolorants

Color becomes the most sensitive part of any commodity not only for its appeal but also it enhances consumer acceptability. In addition, the color of a food substance is important to indicate its freshness and safety that are also indices of good aesthetic and sensorial values. For natural color and additives, adherence to the norms of biosafety protocol, are limited. The demand for natural source of such compounds is...

Author(s): Pritam Chattopadhyay, Sandipan Chatterjee and Sukanta K. Sen

September 2008

Postharvest biology and technology research and development initiatives for Nigeria

  This paper presents summaries and major recommendations of ten published technical papers by the author in the field of post harvest biology and technology, which answers to developmental challenges that will bring fundamental changes to society, including job creation and poverty reduction through creation of wealth and desirable opportunities. These papers are in the areas of developments in...

Author(s): Simon Verlumun Irtwange

September 2008

Assesment of the water quality and prevalence of water borne diseases in Amassoma, Niger Delta, Nigeria

  The chemical and microbiological properties were investigated at the bank and midstream of the Ammassoma River used for domestic water consumption. Also, retrospective study was conducted at Amassoma General Hospital to ascertain the extent of water borne diseases by studying the case notes of 100 subjects from 2005 - 2007. The carbon-oxygen demand (COD) and biological-oxygen demand (BOD)5 at the bank and...

Author(s): L. L. Nwidu, B. Oveh, T. Okoriye and N. A. Vaikosen

September 2008

Comparative antioxidant capacity, membrane stabilization, polyphenol composition and cytotoxicity of the leaf and stem of Cissus multistriata

  In this present study, a comparative evaluation of the antioxidant capacities, phenol and polyphenol composition, membrane stabilization, and cytotoxicity to brine shrimps (Arthemia salina) of the leaf and stem extracts of Cissus multistriata were carried out. 2,2- Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect of the extracts was determined spectrophotometrically. The highest radical...

Author(s): Omale, James and Okafor, Polycarp Nnacheta

September 2008

Antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of a Tolypocladium sp. fungus isolated from wild Cordyceps sinensis

  Tolypocladium sp. Ts-1 was isolated from the fruiting body of a wild Cordyceps sinensis, one of the best known traditional Chinese medicine and health foods. The antioxidant activities of hot-water extracts from cultured mycelia of Tolypocladium sp. were assessed in different in vitro systems. The extracts showed superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of 35.6 U/mg protein and are...

Author(s): Li Ping Zheng, Li Wen Gao, Jian Qin Zhou, Yang Hu Sima and Jian Wen Wang

September 2008

Anti-emetic activity of Grewia lasiodiscus root extract and fractions

  Preparation of Grewia lasiodiscus (K Schum) root is used in African traditional medicine to treat fever, pains and emesis. A 70% aqueous methanolic extract of G. lasiodiscus root (Extract) was obtained and fractionated on column chromatography using solvents of increasing polarities to yield three fractions designated F1 to F3.The effect of the extract on pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis...

Author(s):   Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD), Idu, Abuja, Nigeria. Department of Medicinal Plant Research and Traditional Medicine, National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD), Idu, Abuja, Nigeria. Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Quality Control, National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD), Idu, Abuja, Nigeria.

September 2008

Genetic variation of mangrove species Avicennia marina in Iran revealed by microsatellite markers

  Mangroves play an essential role in ecosystem dynamics but are reported to be regressing as human pressure increases on coastal zones. In order to ensure conservation of mangroves, genetic diversity in remaining population must be explored. Since Avicennia marina is an environmentally susceptible species, such studies including examination of its genetic variation is done in a worldwide range....

Author(s): H. Valipour Kahrood, S. Ali Ahmad Korori, M. Pirseyedi, A.  Shirvany and A. Danehkar

September 2008

Eggshell membranes as a noninvasive sampling for molecular studies of Chinese alligators (Alligator sinensis)

  Noninvasive sampling is of prime essential on conservation genetics and molecular ecology. It is particularly preferred to use in the genetic identification of individuals and genetic analysis. A simple and efficient sampling is described for molecular studies from eggshell membranes in an endemic population of Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis). This sampling strategy is fast, inexpensive and noninvasive...

Author(s): Yun Hu and Xiao-Bing Wu

September 2008

Effects of municipal sewage sludge doses on the yield, some yield components and heavy metal concentration of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

  Significant grain yield increase to applied municipal sewage sludge was obtained. This study wascarried out in order to investigate the effects of the different doses municipal sewage sludge application on the heavy metal concentrations, yield and quality of dry bean in the 2006 and 2007 years. The trial was conducted in randomized complete block design with three replications. Four municipal sewage...

Author(s): Necat Togay, Yesim Togay and Yusuf Dogan

September 2008

Estimation of fruit weight by cane traits for eight American blackberries (Rubus fructicosus L.) cultivars

  The present paper aimed to estimate fruit weight by their cane traits (the number of cane, cane height, cane diameter, and cane yield) for eight American blackberry cultivars (namely, Ness, Cherokee, Arapaho, Chester Thornless, Navaho, Black Satin, Dirksen Thornless and Cv. Jumbo) grown in Central Anatolia during 2002 - 2006. For this aim, average of fruit weight (dependent variable) for each cultivar was...

Author(s): S. Peral Eyduran, Ecevit Eyduran and Y. Sabit Agaoglu

September 2008

Response of maize (Zea mays) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) intercrop relayed with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to different levels of cow dung amended phosphate rock

  Field trial was conducted at the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria in 2002 and 2003 to assess the effect of Ogun rock phosphate (ORP) amended with cow dung (CD) manure on the growth and yields of maize and okra in intercrop relayed with cowpea on an Aquic Arenic Haplustalf. Significant treatment effects were observed in plant height and leaf area of maize and...

Author(s): M. O. Akande, F. I. Oluwatoyinbo, C. O. Kayode and F. A. Olowokere

September 2008

Estimation of fruit weight by cane traits for various raspberries (Rubus ideaus L.) cultivars

  Raspberries are an important commercial fruit crop, widely grown in all temperate regions of the world. The raspberries contain significant amounts of polyphenol antioxidants such as anthocyanin pigments linked to potential health protection against several human diseases. The aim of this...

Author(s): S. Peral Eyduran, Ecevit Eyduran, and Y. Sabit Agaoglu

September 2008

Heavy metal concentrations in soils and accumulation in plants growing in a deserted slag dumpsite in Nigeria

  Early detection and remediation of heavy metals in soil and vegetation will ameliorate serious threats posed to human existence. An auto battery manufacturing company dumped slag containing proportion of heavy metals in an hectare of land at Lalupon, Ibadan, Nigeria. The extent of contamination of soil by heavy metals and their accumulation in plants around the abandoned slag was studied. Plants and the...

Author(s): Mary B. Ogundiran and Oladele Osibanjo

September 2008

DNA damage by the cobalt (II) and zinc (II) complexes of tetraazamacrocyclic in Tetrahymena thermophila

  Using the single cell gel electrophoresis method, the tetraazamacrocycle Zn(II) complex (Zn(II)-L) and the tetraazamacrocycle Co(II) complex (Co(II)-L) were investigated focusing on their DNA damage toTetrahymena thermophila. When the cells were treated with the 0.05, 0.25 and 0.50 mg/ml Zn(II)-L, the tail length increased significantly, with 10.83, 11.56 and 11.87 μm, respectively. With the dose of 0.5...

Author(s): Zhong-Dong Xu, Rong-Hua Shi, Wei Wang, Rui-Song Tao, Jian-Hong Bi and Zhao-Jun Wei

September 2008

Lignocellulosic enzymes from Flavodon flavus, a fungus isolated from Western Indian Ocean off the coast of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

  Marine basidiomycetes fungus Flavodon flavus (Klotzsch) Ryvarden was isolated from sea grass at Mjimwema in the Western Indian Ocean off the Coast of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and cultured in the laboratory. Protein content and lignocellulosic enzyme activities were measured by photometric methods. Desalted and size-separated enzyme filtrates were resolved by sodium docecyl...

Author(s): Godliving Mtui and Yoshitoshi Nakamura

September 2008

Removal of some metal ions from aqueous solution using orange mesocarp

  In this study, the use of orange mesocarp residue biomass (modified and unmodified) as a cost-effective and environmentally safe technique to remove Mg2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Pb2+ from aqueous solution was investigated. The results showed that unmodified orange mesocarp residue bound 56% of Mg2+, 81% of Zn2+, 71% of Cu2+, 73% of Pb2+, and 85.05% of Cd2+. In the case of modified orange mesocarp residue, it was...

Author(s):   Regina E. Ogali, Onyewuchi Akaranta and Vivian O. Aririguzo  

September 2008

The effect of reuse of unhairing-liming residual floats through regeneration on the microorganism number

  Even though microorganism load was mostly ignored in the unhairing-liming process due to extremely high pH values, it is a question to answer when unhairing-liming residual floats are reused through regeneration. The objective of this paper was to determine the number of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria and of proteolytic, lypolytic, aerobic spore-forming bacteria, and of total aerobic fungi (mould and...

Author(s): Binnur Meriçli Yapici, Ali Nail Yapici and Ece Keçici

September 2008

Occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in smoked fish in Sokoto, Nigeria

  The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in smoked fish in Sokoto, Nigeria. A total of 115 different species of smoked fish from the various retail outlets and market places within the metropolis were analysed for the presence of L. monocytogenes using ISO culture method. Out of the 115 samples analysed, 29 (25%) were positive for L....

Author(s): M. D. Salihu, A. U. Junaidu, S. B. Manga, M. L. Gulumbe, A. A. Magaji, A. Ahmed, A. Y. Adamu, A. Shittu and I. Balarabe

September 2008

Mineral content in some Cameroonian household foods eaten in Douala

  Malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies associated to emerging chronically diseases are serious public health in Cameroon. The main roots are poverty, and poor knowledge on food composition based on optimal uses of available foods to maintain nutrition security. Sixteen recipes more frequently consumed selected after nutritional survey were cooked in triplicate and their minerals (Ca, Mg, K, P, Zn, Cu,...

Author(s): Marie Modestine Kana Sop, Inocent Gouado, Clautilde Teugwa  Mofor,Miro Smriga , Martin Fotso and Tetanye Ekoe

September 2008

Storage temperature affects fruit quality attributes of Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.) in Zimbabwe

  Fruit utilization is affected by quality attributes and shelf life. The quality of Jujube or Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.) fruits after harvest depends on storage conditions used. In this study, different storage temperatures and durations were evaluated to determine the appropriate storage conditions of fresh fruits of Z. mauritiana. Three storage temperature levels, low (5oC), intermediate...

Author(s): Lovejoy Tembo, Z. A. Chiteka, Irene Kadzere, Festus K. Akinnifesi and F. Tagwira

September 2008

Blanching and drying period affect moisture loss and vitamin C content in Ziziphus mauritiana (Lamk.)

  Wider utilization of Ziziphus mauritania (Lamk) Ber fruits in sub-Saharan Africa is hindered by the rapid deterioration of the fresh fruits and darkening of sun-dried fruits. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of pre-drying treatment, drying method and the subsequent duration of storage on the quality attributes of Z. mauritiana fruits harvested from the Zambezi Valley. The...

Author(s): Lovejoy Tembo, Z. A. Chiteka, Irene Kadzere, Festus K. Akinnifesi and Fanuel Tagwira

September 2008

Microencapsulation of the natural urucum pigment with chitosan by spray drying in different solvents

  The food industry expects increasingly complex properties from food ingredients and such complex properties can often only be provided by microencapsulation. A number of methods are reported for microencapsulation but the most popular technique employed in industry is spray drying. Urucum has many applications in the food industry. In this study, we report the process of urucum microencapsulation into...

Author(s): Alexandre Luis Parize, Tereza Cristina Rozone de Souza, Inês Maria Costa Brighente, Valfredo T. de Fávere, Mauro C. M. Laranjeira, Adaiane Spinelli and Elson Longo

September 2008

Fermentative production and application of acid phytase by Saccharomyces cerevisiae CY strain

  Improvement of phytase production from Saccharomyces cerevisiae CY strain was attempted by optimizing the culture medium. The optimum medium components for cell growth and enzyme production were found to be galactose, ammonium sulfate, sodium phytate, and magnesium sulfate. Galactose (5%) and ammonium sulfate (2%) were the most suitable carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, for phytase...

Author(s): Man-Jin In, Sung-Won Seo and Nam-Soon Oh

September 2008

Antibacterial activity from Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) serum

  Antibacterial agents were purified from Siamese crocodile serum by anion exchange, gel filtration and reversed phase HPLC. Six antibacterial agents designed as Hp14, Hp15, Hp17, Hp31, Hp36 and Hp51 were purified and proved to carry activity againstSalmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas...

Author(s): Sutthidech Preecharram, Sakda Daduang, Wandee Bunyatratchata, Tomohiro Araki and Sompong Thammasirirak

September 2008

Antidiarrhoeal activity of aqueous extract of Combretum sericeum roots in rats

  The antidiarrhoeal activity of aqueous extract of Combretum sericeum roots was evaluated in rats. Studies were carried out on castor oil induced diarrhea, gastrointestinal motility and castor oil induced fluid accumulation. The extract (25 and 50 mg/kg) causes a dose dependent protection against castor oil induced diarrhea and castor oil induced fluid accumulation and decreased markedly...

Author(s): Sini, J. M., Umar, I. A., Anigo, K. M., Stantcheva, I.  Bage, E. N. and Mohammed, R.

September 2008

Antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts of mistletoes (Viscum album) from cocoa and cashew trees in Nigeria

  Methanolic extracts of Viscum album leaves from two hosts (cocoa and cashew trees) were subjected to antioxidant assay. V. album from cocoa tree had higher total phenol content (182 mg/100 g) as against that of cashew tree (160 mg/100 g). The result of the study also revealed that the ferric reducing ability, free radical scavenging ability as well as the Fe2+ chelation of the...

Author(s): Ademiluyi Adedayo Oluwaseun and Oboh Ganiyu

September 2008

Effect of acute bilateral adrenalectomy and reserpine on gastric mucus secretion and mucosal injury in pyloric ligated rats

  Adrenalectomy produces many changes in gastric functional parameters including gastric acid secretion, gastric motility and mucosal blood flow. The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of acute bilateral adrenalectomy and reserpine on gastric mucus secretion and degradation in the pyloric ligated rats. Groups of Wistar rats of mixed sexes were adrenalectomized or administered with 5 mg/kg...

Author(s): Sadiq Yusuf, Alexander B. Adelaiye, Andrew J. Nok, Danladi A. Ameh and Emmanuel O. Balogun

September 2008

Effect of testosterone and growth hormone injection before puberty on follicles size, rate of egg production and egg characteristics of the Mazandaran Native breeder hens

  Egg shell quality and egg internal quality are of major importance to the egg industry worldwide. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of testosterone and growth hormone (hGH) on egg production and characteristics. The aim of this trial is to test this hypothesis that one injection of these two hormones before puberty has any effects on egg production of Mazandaran native...

Author(s): Z. Ansari Pirsaraei, A. Zare Shahneh, M. Zaghari, M. J. Zamiri and G. Rahimi Mianji

September 2008

Protoplasting impact on polyketide activity and characterization of the interspecific fusants from Streptomyces spp.

  The influence of protoplasting and protoplast regeneration on antibiotic activity, transfer of biosynthesis encoding genes in local Streptomyces spp. CN207 was studied. The frequency of regenerated protoplasts in the lag phase was 1.7x103CFU/ml, in the beginning of the exponential phase 0.4x102 CFU/ml, in the exponential growth phase 2.5x103 CFU/ml, and 1.0x105 CFU/ml in...

Author(s): H. Lazim, N. Slama, M. Abbassi , I. Barkallah, A. Ben Hassen and   F. Limam

September 2008

Tapping the unexploited plant resources for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles

  Development of biologically inspired experimental processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles is evolving into an important branch of nanotechnology. The bioreduction behaviour of various plant leaf extracts such as Helianthus annus (Asteraceae), Basella alba (Basellaceae),  Oryza sativa, Saccharum officinarum, Sorghum bicolour andZea mays (Poaceae) in the...

Author(s): Arangasamy Leela and Munusamy Vivekanandan