African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12196

Table of Content: 6 April 2009; 8(7)

April 2009

Spermatozoa morphology and characteristics of male wistar rats administered with ethanolic extract of Lagenaria Breviflora Roberts

  This study was aimed at determining the effects of the ethanolic extract of the whole fruit of Lagenaria breviflora Robert on male fertility by evaluating some andrological parameters of the Wistar rat such as morphology of spermatozoa, sperm count, motility, liveability and volume of the semen. Histopathology of the testis was carried out. 20 adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5...

Author(s): Adebowale Bernard Saba, Olayinka Ayotunde Oridupa, Matthew Olugbenga  Oyeyemi  and Oluwaseun Dapo Osanyigbe

April 2009

Evaluation of the antimicrobial properties of unripe banana (Musa sapientum L.), lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus S.) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) on pathogens

  The investigation on the potency of unripe banana (Musa sapientum L.), lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus S.) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) was carried out against pathogens. The formulations were in the powder form as used locally. The antimicrobial activity of these plants was...

Author(s): Fagbemi, Josephine Ferdinand, Ugoji, Esther, Adenipekun, Tayo and Adelowotan, Omotoyin

April 2009

Trino IB ameliorates the oxidative stress of cryptorchidism in the rat

  The study examined the effect of Trino IB, a mixture of oleuropein and α-lipoic acid, on the plasma concentration of g-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), malondialdehyde (MDA), sperm count and apoptotic degeneration of testicular germ cells in experimentally induced cryptorchidism in adult male rats. Oral administration of Trino IB (0.5 ml/kg body weight) for 56 days to rats caused significant...

Author(s): A.O. Afolabi, O. Aluko, O. Oyewopo, B.M. Olabinri, O. Olotu and Y. Raji

April 2009

Development of RAPD based markers for wheat rust resistance gene cluster (Lr37-Sr38-Yr17) derived from Triticum ventricosum L.

  Rust diseases are the major cause of low yield of wheat in Pakistan. Wheat breeders all over the world as well as in Pakistan are deriving rust resistance genes from alien species like Triticum ventricosum and introducing them in common wheat (Triticum aestivum). One such example is the introgression of rust resistance gene cluster Lr37-Sr38-Yr17 derived from T....

Author(s): Saqib Mumtaz, Imtiaz Ahmed Khan, Shahid Ali, Bahadur Zeb, Arshad Iqbal, Zamarud Shah and Zahoor Ahmed Swati

April 2009

Genetic diversity and historical demography of Chinese shrimp Feneropenaeus chinensis in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea based on mitochondrial DNA analysis

  Genetic structure and demographic history of shrimp Feneropenaeus chinensiswere examined using sequence data from portions of the mitochondrial cytochromec oxidase I (COI) gene. Samples of 91 individuals were collected from 5 localities over most of the species’ range in the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea. Variability was detected at a total of 20 nucleotide sites, defining 20 haplotypes of COI...

Author(s): Yu Long Li, Xiao Yu Kong, Zi Niu Yu, Jie Kong, Shen Ma and Li Mei Chen

April 2009

The geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase gene from Ginkgo biloba: cloning, characterization and functional identification

  Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase (GGDPS, EC: 2.5.1.29) catalyzes the biosynthesis of 20-carbon geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGDP), which is a key precursor for ginkgolides biosynthesis. In order to investigate the role of GGDP synthase in ginkgolides biosynthesis, we cloned, characterized and functionally expressed the GGDP synthase gene from Ginkgo biloba. The genomic DNA fragment of the GGDPS...

Author(s): Wei Wang, Min Chen, Chunxian Yang, Wanhong Liu, Xiaozhong Lan, Zhihua Liao

April 2009

Molecular cloning and sequencing of penicillin G acylase from Shigella boydii

  In this study, 290 non-Escherichia coli Enterobacteriasea that were isolated from environmental and clinical specimen, were sent to the laboratory for examination with routine microbiological tests for identification of isolates. After identification, non-E. coli isolates were inspected by PCR for existence of penicillin G acylase (PGA) gene. Then, a PGA positive strain (Shigella boydii) from...

Author(s): Montazam Seyed Hassan, Safar Farajnia, and Raheb Aboshof

April 2009

Effect of various amino acids on shoot regeneration of sugarcane (Sacchrum officinarum L.)

  An efficient regeneration protocol from sugarcane callus has been developed through inclusion of amino acids in regeneration medium. Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) SP-241 callus was induced from meristematic explants cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with B5 vitamins containing 13.6 µM 2-4, dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 0.05% (w/v) casein hydrolysate, 10% (v/v) coconut water...

Author(s): Shaheen Asad, Muhammad Arshad, Shahid Mansoor and Yusuf Zafar

April 2009

Mycotoxin production by fungi isolated from stored grains

  A study was conducted to determine the fungi associated with maize (Zea mays), rice (Oryza sativa) and millet (Pennisetum typhoiodes) in storage. Mycotoxin production by isolated fungi was subsequently evaluated using the thin layer chromatography technique. Eight different fungi were isolated altogether namelyAspergillus terreus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium...

Author(s): Amadi, J. E. and Adeniyi, D. O.

April 2009

Palynological studies on five species of Asteraceae

  Palynological studies on five species of the family Asteraceae namely Guternbergia nigritiana, Emilia praetemissa, Vernonia guineensis, Lagera pterodonta andChromolena odorata was carried out. Results obtained from this investigation showed that the pollen shape is spheroidal in G. nigritiana, E. praetermissa and C.odorata while it is elliptic...

Author(s):   Mbagwu, F. N., Chime, E. G. and Unamba, C. I. N.

April 2009

Genetic diversity of Pogonatherum paniceum (Lam.) Hack. in Southwest China revealed by AFLP markers

  Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were used to estimate the genetic diversity of Pogonatherum paniceum (Lam.) Hack. from Sichuan Province, Yunnan Province, Chongqing City and Guangxi Zhuang autonomous Region in China. 10 primer combinations were carried out on 180 different individuals sampled from 22 wild populations. Out of the 485 discernable DNA fragments...

Author(s): Guo-Qing Zhuang, Dan-Wei Ma, , Wen-Guo Wang, Sheng-Hua Wang and Fang Chen

April 2009

Effect of diverse ecological conditions on biomass production of Themeda triandra (Kangaroo grass) at various growth stages

  Due to heavy grazing of rangelands intolerable pressures on land, vegetation and its inhabitants has been observed. The main source of income in arid, semi arid and rain-fed areas of Pakistan is livestock rearing. The efficiency of rangelands has been adversely affected due to exploitation and centuries of overgrazing. Kangaroo grass native to Australia is known as the best grass to grow on different...

Author(s): Aamir Saleem, Sarwat N. Mirza, Irshad Ahmad Khan and Jennifer Franklin

April 2009

Genetic diversity in grain quality and nutrition of aromatic rices

  The study was conducted at Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI), Gazipur in 2005 to assess the genetic divergence of aromatic rices for grain quality and nutrition aspects. Forty genotypes composed of 32 local aromatic, five exotic aromatic and three non-aromatic rice varieties were used. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done. Enormous variations were observed in majority of characters viz....

Author(s): S. M. Shahidullah, M. M. Hanafi, M. Ashrafuzzaman, M. Razi Ismail and A. Khair

April 2009

Efficiency of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for the enhancement of rice growth

  Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are beneficial bacteria that colonize plant roots and enhance plant growth by a wide variety of mechanisms. The use of PGPR is steadily increasing in agriculture and offers an attractive way to replacechemical fertilizers, pesticides, and supplements. Here, we have isolated and characterized the PGPR from the rhizosphere soil of rice field for the...

Author(s): M. Ashrafuzzaman, Farid Akhtar Hossen, M. Razi Ismail, Md. Anamul Hoque, M. Zahurul Islam, S.M. Shahidullah and Sariah Meon

April 2009

The microbiological effects of hospital wastes on the environment

  The effect of twenty four (24) hospital wastes samples taken from different hospitals waste dumpsites on its surrounding soil was examined. The counts of microorganisms in hospital dumpsite soil include the following; aerobic heterotrophic counts from 4.2 x 105 to 1.6 x 1010, anaerobic heterotrophic counts from 1.0 x 105 to 1.6 x 109 while fungi counts from 0 to 6.9 x 106. The counts in...

Author(s): Oyeleke, S. B. and Istifanus, N.

April 2009

Screening of antibacterial activity in marine green and brown macroalgae from the coast of Morocco

  Antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts from 32 macroalgae (13 Chlorophyta and 19 Phaeophyta) from the Atlantic and Mediterranean coast of Morocco were evaluated for the production of antibacterial compounds against Escherichia coliATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Klebsiella pnomeuniae ATCC 700603 and E....

Author(s): Chiheb Ibtissam, Riadi Hassane, Martinez-Lopez José, Dominguez Seglar Josè Francisco, Gomez Vidal Josè Antonio, Bouziane Hassan and Kadiri Mohamed

April 2009

Genetic diversity and in vitro antibiotic susceptibility profile of Salmonella species isolated from domestic water and wastewater sources in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

  We assessed the genetic diversity of forty Salmonella isolates obtained from selected domestic water and waste water sources in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa using DNA fingerprinting and antibiotic susceptibility profile as test indices. Restriction digests and SDS/PAGE as well as the DNA dendograms of the isolates revealed that most of these strains show a high percentage of genetic...

Author(s): N. C. Mafu, G. Pironcheva and A. I. Okoh

April 2009

In vitro evaluation of peroxyl radical scavenging capacity of water extract/fractions of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. Ex Del

  The present study was planned to confirm the peroxyl radical scavenging capacity of water extract/fractions of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. Ex Del. in lipid peroxidation assay and results were compared with standard antioxidant (butylated hydroxytoluene). The bark powder of the plant was extracted with different solvents of increasing and decreasing polarity by maceration extraction method and then...

Author(s): Rajbir Singh and Saroj Arora

April 2009

Screening for lipase-producing Enterobacter agglomerans for biodiesel catalyzation

  This paper reports a comprehensive study of screening rapeseed soil sample inVictoria blue solution solid medium, with olive oil as sole carbon source. The lipaseof Enterobacter agglomerans which has the highest activity was identified. Underthe optimum conditions determined, the enzyme activity of this strain reached 39.09 U/mL. The optimal conditions were found to be:...

Author(s): Zhang Zhen-qian and Guan Chun-yun

April 2009

The proposed mechanism of bactericidal action of eugenol, α-terpineol and g-terpinene against Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus pyogenes, Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli

  The mechanism of antimicrobial activity of essential oils components; α- terpineol,g-terpinene and eugenol was studied to evaluate their effect on the bacterial membrane against four strains of bacteria: Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcuspyogenes, Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli.  The study was done to observe changes in membrane composition by...

Author(s): S. O. Oyedemi, A. I. Okoh, L. V. Mabinya, G. Pirochenva and A. J. Afolayan

April 2009

Biochemical and textural properties of frozen stored (-22˚C) gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) fillets

  Skinned, vacuum packed post-rigor gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) fillets werestored frozen at -22°C for up to 340 days. Sampling was carried out on fresh fillets at days 34, 91, 183, 266 and 340 of frozen storage. Tests related to muscle integrity (activity of α-glucosidase and the protein content of centrifugal tissue fluids), myofibrillar protein denaturation (Ca2+- and...

Author(s): Maria Makri

April 2009

Some thermo-physical properties of yam cuts of two geometries

    The effects of variation of temperature (-18 to 33°C) and geometries (slab and cylinder) on some thermo-physical properties of white yam were investigated. The measured parameters were density, specific heat, and thermal diffusivity at constant moisture level of 72.7% ± 0.69 (wet basis) using transient heat transfer method. Both the density and specific heat of the sample...

Author(s): M. O. Oke, S. O. Awonorin, O. J. Oyelade, J. O. Olajide, G. O. Olaniyan and P. O. Sobukola

April 2008

Total phenol, tocopherol and antibacterial quality of honey Apis mellifera sold in Owo community, Ondo State, Nigeria

  The total phenol, the tocopherol and the antibacterial activity of different honey Apis mellifera sold in Owo Community, Ondo State, Nigeria were evaluated. The total phenol, expressed as garlic acid equivalents ranged from 2.85 mg/100 g ‘Oja Oba’ to 0.75 mg/100 g ‘Hausa’ honey, while the tocopherol ranged from 17.60/100 g ’Oja Oba’ to 2.77/100 g...

Author(s): F. O. Adetuyi, T. A. Ibrahim, Jude-Ojei and G. A. Ogundahunsi

April 2009

LDH and G-6PDH activities in the ovaries of adult female Wistar rats following the administration of aqueous extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves

  The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of aqueous extracts of neem (Azadirachta Indica) leaves (which have been documented for its antifertility effect on experimental animals) on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6PDH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in the ovaries of adult female wistar rats. Twenty four adult female wistar rats weighing 200 ± 10 g were divided...

Author(s): A. J. David, G. A. Adefolaju, B. U. Enaibe, M. S. Ajao and E. A. Caxton-Martins

April 2009

Hepatoprotective effect of Picrorrhiza kurroa on antioxidant defense system in antitubercular drugs-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

  The hepatoprotective effect of the ethanol extract of Picrorrhiza kurroa rhizomes and roots (PK) on liver mitochondrial antioxidant defense system in isoniazid and rifampicin-induced hepatitis in rats was investigated. In liver mitochondria of antitubercular drugs administered rats, a significant elevation in the level of lipid peroxidation with concomitant decline in the level of reduced...

Author(s): R. Jeyakumar, R. Rajesh, D. Rajaprabhu, B. Ganesan, S. Buddhan, R. Anandan

April 2009

Swimming ability and physiological response to swimming fatigue in kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus

  The swimming endurance of kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus (11.04 ± 2.43 g) at five swimming speeds (23.0, 26.7, 31.0, 34.6 and 38.6 cm s-1) was determined in a circulating flume at 25.7 ± 0.7°C. The plasma glucose and total protein, hepatopancreas and pleopods muscle glycogen concentrations were determined before swimming and immediately after swimming to evaluate...

Author(s):   Xiaoming Yu, Xiumei Zhang, Peidong Zhang and Cungen Yu

April 2009

Effect of stocking density on tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus 1757) growth and survival in bamboo – net cages trial

  The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of varying stocking densities on the growth, survival, and yield of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus 1757) at the freshwater reservoir (average depth, 1.7 m) of the University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Nigeria, for a period of 3 months. Tilapia juvenile with a mean weight of 29 ± 4.81 g were randomly (Complete Randomized Design)...

Author(s): S. A. Osofero, S. O. Otubusin and Daramola J. A.

April 2009

Effect of stocking density on tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus 1757) growth and survival in bamboo – net cages trial

  The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of varying stocking densities on the growth, survival, and yield of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus 1757) at the freshwater reservoir (average depth, 1.7 m) of the University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Nigeria, for a period of 3 months. Tilapia juvenile with a mean weight of 29 ± 4.81 g were randomly (Complete Randomized Design)...

Author(s): S. A. Osofero, S. O. Otubusin and Daramola J. A.

April 2009

Identification of salt-stress induced differentially expressed genes in barley leaves using the annealing-control-primer-based GeneFishing technique

  In the present study, we have used an annealing-control-primer (ACP)-based differentially display RT-PCR method to identify salt-stress-induced differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in barley leaves. Using 120 ACPs, a total of 11 up-regulated genes were identified and sequenced. Temporal expression patterns of some up-regulated DEGs in response to salt stress were further analyzed by Northern blot analysis....

Author(s): Sang-Hoon Lee, Ki-Won Lee, Ki-Yong Kim, Gi Jun Choi, Sei Hyung Yoon, Hee Chung Ji, Sung Seo, Young Chul Lim and Nagib Ahsan

April 2009

Removal of chromium ion from leather industrial wastes by activated pure rice hulls

  The removal of Cr ions from industrial wastage by adsorption on rice hulls was investigated based on activated pure rice hulls dosage, stay time, metal concentration and solution temperature. The optimum values of activated pure rice hulls dosage and stay time were determined to be 0.5 gm/50 ml solution and 60 min, respectively, for the adsorption of Cr ions. The constant for the Freundlich, D-R and Langmuir...

Author(s): Mahejabeen Mukhtar

April 2009

Immobilization of alliinase and its application: Flow-injection enzymatic analysis for alliin

  Alliinase was immobilized on chitosan microspheres by means of glutaraldehyde, and a flow-injection enzymatic analytical system was developed for determination ofalliin based on the immobilized alliinase and an ammonia gas electrode. The factors affecting the activity of the immobilized enzyme, such as glutaraldehyde concentration, cross-linking time and the amount of alliinase, were investigated....

Author(s): Jianqin Zhou

April 2009

Effects of challenge dose on faecal shedding of Salmonella enteritidis in experimental infected chickens

  Experimental infection of chickens with Salmonella enteritidis is often achieved by oral inoculation of live bacteria to caged chickens. Less information is available on influence of amount of Salmonella a chicken is exposed to during infection on the proportion that is eventually eliminated in faeces. This study evaluated the effects of challenge dose of S. enteritidis on...

Author(s): Olayinka Olabisi Ishola

April 2009

Study on the genetic diversity of native chickens in northwest Ethiopia using microsatellite markers

  In this study, indigenous chicken populations representing seven different areas of northwest Ethiopia were studied using microsatellite markers to determine genetic diversity and variation. Three local lines of South African chicken and two commercial chicken strains were included for comparison. The Ethiopian chicken population Gassay/Farta had the highest number of alleles per locus (10) for microsatellite...

Author(s): Halima Hassen, F. W. C. Neser , A. de Kock  and E van Marle-Köster 

April 2009

Relationship between scrotal circumference, in situ testicular measurements and sperm reserves in the West African dwarf bucks

  Fifteen WAD bucks aged 10 - 12 months and weighing between 14.0 and 16.5 kg were used to determine the relationship between scrotal circumference (SC), in situtesticular measurements and sperm reserves. The in situ testicular measurements were testis length (TL) and testis width (TW) and these were compared with ex situmeasurements (in excised testes). The results showed no significant...

Author(s): S. O. C. Ugwu

April 2009

Comparative utilization of biodegraded and undegraded rice husk in Clarias gariepinus diet

  Possible improvement in the nutritional composition of rice husk (RH) was attempted through Solid State Fermentation with the use of the fungus,Trichoderma viridii. A comparative utilization of the fermented RH (FRH), raw RH and a control diet was studied using parameters like performance and nutrient utilization alongside some economic indicators to arrive at conclusion that isonitrogenous diets were...

Author(s): Aderolu Ademola Zaid and Oyedokun Ganiyat