African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12487

Table of Content: 6 August 2007; 6(15)

August 2007

Comparative phytochemical evaluation, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Pleurotus ostreatus

This study scientifically examined the phytochemistry, antioxidant and antimicrobial potencies of two organic extracts of Pleurotus ostreatus. Generally, both extracts were effective against 89.8% of the isolates tested with Bacillus subtilis (7.6 – 7.8 mm),Escherichia coli (7.6 – 8.2 mm) and Saccharomycee cerevisae (10.5 – 10.8 mm) exhibiting highest gram ±ve, gram...

Author(s): Iwalokun, B. A., Usen, U. A, Otunba, A. A. and Olukoya, D. K.

August 2007

Cytotoxic activities of Coriolus versicolor (Yunzhi) extracts on human liver cancer and breast cancer cell line

  The CVP (Coriolus versicolor polysaccharide) is well known as anti-tumor drug in clinical applications. Although recent studies have demonstrated that CVP can inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, the different purity level of CVP has a different affect on various cancer cells. In this study, the crude CVP was extracted fromC. versicolor dry fruit bodies by...

Author(s): Xuanwei Zhou, Hua Jiang, Juan Lin and Kexuan Tang

August 2007

Protective role of Phyllantus niruri extract on serum lipid profiles and oxidative stress in hepatocytes of diabetic rats

Diabetes mellitus has been associated with lipid abnormalities and oxidative stress. Some phytochemical properties have been shown to possess antioxidant activities, improving the effects of oxidative stress on diabetes. This present investigations confirmed that untreated diabetic rats were associated with lipid abnormalities as indicated by high levels of total- and LDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols and low levels of...

Author(s): Nwanjo, H. U. , Oze, G., Okafor, M. C., Nwosu, D. and Nwankpa, P.

August 2007

A recombinant lactobacillus strain expressing genes coding for restriction enzymes cleaving the HIV genomes for use as a live microbicide strategy against heterosexual transmission of HIV

Using genetically engineered endogenous lactobacillus strains colonizing the vagina mucosa to express heterogenous proteins has of late joined the novel strategies aimed at developing a microbicides against HIV. Using the lactobacillus metabolic genome pathway, we found that these bacteria do not naturally produce restriction enzymes, but rather, have a number of putative alien genes of the type. In view of the...

Author(s): Wayengera Misaki

August 2007

Widespread plasmid resistance genes among Proteus species in diabetic wounds of patients in the Ahmadu Bello university teaching hospital (ABUTH) Zaria

Plasmids have been known to play a major role in the dissemination of antibiotics resistance genes in a microbial population. In this background, 148 Proteus species comprising of 97 Proteus mirabilis and 51 Proteus vulgaris were isolated from diabetic wounds. Seventy-six strains had varied multi-drug resistance (MDR) pattern encoded on transferable plasmid gene with a very high...

Author(s): Yah, S. C, Eghafona, N. O, Oranusi, S. and Abouo A. M.

August 2007

The effect of blood ozonation on mitochondrial function and apoptosis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the presence and absence of plasma antioxidants

Ozone-autohemotherapy (O3-AHT) has recently gained interest as a form of alternative and complementary medicine. There is, however, some concern regarding its toxicity and effectiveness. Ozone is a powerful oxidant and when introduced into biological fluids react with most cellular components including proteins, lipids and DNA. We assessed the effect of O3-AHT on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) viability,...

Author(s): Lissinda H. du Plessis, Francois H. van der Westhuizen, Herculaas. F. Kotze

August 2007

Antimicrobial activity of some endemic plant species from Turkey

Six plant extracts obtained from different parts such as the leaves, flowers and seeds of four species of the endemic plants in Turkey were tested on a total of 14 microorganisms, 10 of which were bacterial strains and 4 yeast strains. Verbascum eriocarpum (flower) extract was found to be effective against Staphylococcus aureus;Stachys cretica subsp. anatolica (leaf and flower)...

Author(s): Mehlika Benli Kerim Güney, Ümit Bingöl, Fatmagül Geven and Nazife YiÄŸit

August 2007

Antimicrobial activities of four plant species from the Southern Overberg region of South Africa

Four plant species used for medicinal purposes in the Bredasdorp/Elim (Southern Overberg) region of the Western Cape Province in South Africa, were screened for their antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity of aqueous, methanol, ethanol and ethyl-acetate leaf extracts of Bulbine lagopus (Asphodelaceae), Chironia baccifera(Gentianaceae), Conyza scabrida (Asteraceae) and Dodonaea...

Author(s): T.S.A. Thring, E.P. Springfield, F.M. Weitz

August 2007

Evaluation of antibacterial properties of tannins isolated from Dichrostachys cinerea

Compounds of pharmacological interest (tannins) were isolated from Dichrostachys cinerea and assayed against Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella boydii, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using the agar diffusion method. Tannins exhibited antibacterial activities against all the test microorganisms. Sh. flexneri was the most resistant to tannins isolated...

Author(s):  Banso, A. and Adeyemo, S.O

August 2007

Antibiotic like-substances produced by some trichophytic dermatophytes

Antibiotic production by dermatophytic fungi was demonstrated. Among 10 anthropophilic dermato-phytes strains tested for their ability to produce antibiotics, four were found  to be producers. The out-come for a qualitative identification of the produced antibiotics  reveals four types ; a penicillin-like sub-stance produced byTrichophyton gourvillii, and two different types of unknown substances...

Author(s): Hammadi, D. K., Selselet, G. A., S. A. Bensoultane

August 2007

Multi drug resistance and β-lactamase production by Klebsiella pneumoniae

The extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production and multidrug resistant ofKlebsiella pneumoniae in children below 5 years of ages are investigated. The K. pneumoniae strains isolated from patients suffering from intestinal and extra intestinal infection between the 0 - 5 year’s ages of children showed resistant to the three antibiotics (ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone), and coexist...

Author(s): Habeeb Khadri .C, S. Surekha, S. Lakshmi and G. Narasimha

August 2007

Use of PCR based technologies for risk assessment of a winter cyanobacterial bloom in Lake Midmar, South Africa

Toxic freshwater cyanobacterial blooms are potential health hazards in water supply reservoirs and therefore predicting bloom events is an important goal of monitoring fresh water programmes. The recent identification of the mcy genes in the production of microcystin synthetase for the first time provides an avenue to study microcystin production at a genetic level. This paper reports analysis of a winter...

Author(s): P. J. Oberholster and A. M. Botha

August 2007

Impact of effluent from Bodija abattoir on the physico-chemical parameters of Oshunkaye stream in Ibadan City, Nigeria

The problem of getting quality drinking water is increasing as untreated effluents are discharged into surface water bodies. The impact of effluent from Bodija abattoir, the biggest abattoir in Ibadan, western Nigeria on the physico-chemical parameters of Oshunkaye stream was investigated. The qualities of effluent and stream water (before and after mixing with effluent) were studied using the basic water quality...

Author(s): Osibanjo, O. and Adie, G. U.

August 2007

Uptake of crude petroleum hydrocarbons by mudflat bacteria exposed to nitrogenous fertilizer plant effluents

In the Niger delta, due to the large-scale exploration and exploitation of crude petroleum, hydrocarbon spills frequently occur. The adverse impacts of these occurrences have frequently been causes for concerns in the area. However, in open estuarine environments, minor spills have short-term effects due to washout by stream water and increased microbial action. The microbial degradation of low level spills is enhanced...

Author(s): Akuro Adoki

August 2007

Hairy root induction from hypocotyl segments of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

Hairy roots were induced from hypocotyl explants excised from seven day old aseptically grown seedlings of groundnut using Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834. The percentage of hairy root induction and number of hairy roots per ex-plant varied with infection period.  The suitable co-cultivation period was 48 h. The hairy roots were fast growing, thin, slender and sometimes having branches which varied in...


August 2007

Characterisation of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki strains by toxicity, plasmid profiles and numerical analysis of their cryIA genes

In the present comparative study, four Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki strains (HD1, dipel, HD73, HD1dipel) were characterized by investigating their total plasmid profiling;cryIA genes profiling and toxicity towards local isolates of agricultural insectsHelicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura. Result showed that LC50 for S. liturawere 0.11 μg of HD73, 0.027 μg of HD1, 0.20 μg...

Author(s): S. Kashyap  and D. V. Amla 

August 2007

Influence of osmotic and metal stresses on nitrogenase activity of cyanobacteria ısolated from paddy fields

Samples were collected from paddy fields in Corum-Turkıye. Nitrogen-free BG-11 medium was used for isolation of nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria. Acetylene reduction technique was used to determine the effects of different chemical agents on the nitrogenase activities of the cyanobacteria, which were identified at the genus level.Nostoc showed the highest nitrogenase activity (0.09 ethylene µl/mg.h) at 50 mM...

Author(s): Gulten OKMEN (Kurucuoglu), Gonul DONMEZ and Sedat DONMEZ

August 2007

Mycological investigation of compounded poultry feeds used in poultry farms in southwest Nigeria

Different feed types (chicks, growers and layers mash) were collected from some large and medium scale farms in south west of Nigeria and subjected to mycological examination. Four different types of fungi identified include Aspergillus flavus,Fusarium spp., Rhizopus spp. and Aspergillus niger. The result revealed that no feed was completely free of contamination by mold.   Key...

Author(s): I. B. Osho, T. A. M. Awoniyi and A. I. Adebayo

August 2007

Antimicrobial substances produced by bacteria isolated from different Jordanian sources that are active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

We report here the preliminary antimicrobial activity of substances produced byBacillus subtilis NB-6 (air flora isolate), Bacillus megaterium NB-3 (air flora isolate),Burkholderia mallei NB-8 (water isolate) and Corynebacterium kutscheri NB-1 (soil isolate) against a number of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The MRSA were isolated from sheep, bovine, camel and...

Author(s): Nasser M. El-Banna, Samar S. Quddoumi and Hitham Daradka

August 2007

Fatty acid production by four strains of Mucor hiemalis grown in plant oil and soluble carbohydrates

Four Mucor hiemalis strains (M1, M2, M3 and M4), isolated from soil at a depth of 0 - 15 cm in the Juréia-Itatins Ecology Station (JIES), in the state of São Paulo, Brazil and were evaluated for the production of γ-linolenic (GLA) and other unsaturated fatty acids. Five growth variables (temperature, pH, carbon source, nitrogen source, and vegetable oils) were studied. Liquid media...

Author(s): Sâmia M. Tauk-Tornisielo, Joelma Maurício Vieira, Maria Cecília, V. S. Carneiro and José Silvio Govone

August 2007

Supplementation of olive mill wastes in broiler chicken feeding

This work was conducted in order to study the value of olive mill wastes as diet on the growth performance, abdominal and muscle fat deposition, adipose and muscle tissues fatty acid composition in broilers. 200 male chickens that were 2 weeks old, 50 for each diet, were assigned to one of the three diets containing 5, 10 or 15% olive mill wastes (OMW) compared to control diet (CD). There were no significant differences...

Author(s): EL HACHEMI Ahmed, EL MECHERFI Kamel Eddine, BENZINEB Khaled, SAIDI Djamel, KHEROUA Omar

August 2007

Enumeration and identification of lactic microflora in Algerian goats’ milk

A total of 153 strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from Algerian goats’ milk. The strains were identified according to morphological, biochemical and physiological criteria, as well as the use of the API system and SDS-PAGE technique. Identification of the isolates revealed the presence of six...

Author(s): Cheriguene, A., Chougrani, F., Bekada, A. M. A., El Soda, M. and Bensoltane, A.

August 2007

Antiviral activity of Aloe vera against herpes simplex virus type 2: An in vitro study

  In this study we tested the antiviral activity of a crude hot glycerine extract of Aloe veragel which was grown in Bushehr (Southwest of Iran) against HSV-2 replication in Vero cell line. The extract showed antiviral activity against HSV-2 not only before attachment and entry of virus to the Vero cells but also on post attachment stages of virus replication. The IC50 before attachment and entry of...

Author(s):   Keivan Zandi⊃, Moloud Abbas Zadeh⊃, Kohzad Sartavi⊃ and Zahra Rastian⊃