African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12487

Table of Content: October 2005; 4(10)

October 2005

Genetic transformation of the tropical forage legume Stylosanthes guianensis with a rice-chitinase gene confers resistance to Rhizoctonia foliar blight disease

Stylosanthes guianensis is a diverse tropical and subtropical forage legume of great potential. Foliar blight disease, caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-1, can be a significant constraint to the legume’s production in some areas. The pathogen has a broad range of host plant species, and can survive as sclerotia for long periods in soil or plant debris. No sources of resistance...

Author(s): Segenet Kelemu, Jiang Changshun, Huang Guixi and Gustavo Segura

October 2005

Evaluation of fallow and cover crops for nematode suppression in three agroecologies of south western Nigeria

A study was conducted in three agroecological zones of south-western Nigeria to evaluate the effect of siam weed (Chromolaena odorata) and mucuna (Mucuna utilis) cover/fallow crops on plant-parasitic nematode population. The natural bush regrowth was used as control. Plant-parasitic nematodes were identified and counted during the fallow periods. Eleven genera of nematodes were identified and three...

Author(s): J. A. Adediran, A. A. Adegbite, T. A. Akinlosotu, G. O. Agbaje, L. B. Taiwo, O. F. Owolade, and G. A. Oluwatosin  

October 2005

Effect of season on growth, fruit yield and nutrient profile of two landraces of Trichosanthes cucumerina L.

Studies were conducted in the early season of 2002 and late season of  2003 at the Teaching and Research Farm, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria to determine the effects of season on growth, fruit yield and nutrient profile of two landraces (Variant I and II) of snake tomato (Trichosanthes cucumerina L.). Statistical analysis (P≤0.05) showed that the early season crop had significantly higher number...

Author(s): Oloyede, F.M. and O.C. Adebooye

October 2005

Agroeconomic evaluation of black Sigatoka resistant hybrid plantains under smallholder management systems

Plantain production in Sub-Saharan Africa has been seriously threatened by black Sigatoka disease since the early 1980s. The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture has succeeded in developing hybrids that are resistant to the disease, and out-yields the best landrace by about 100%. Before introducing these hybrids to the farmers, their performance at the smallholder environment has to be established. This study...

Author(s): J.I. Lemchi, C.I. Ezedinma, M. Tshiunza, Tenkouano, B.O. Faturoti

October 2005

A dwarf wheat mutant is associated with increased drought resistance and altered responses to gravity

Drought resistance is an important trait for crops. Here we report a new wheat mutant with increased drought resistance and altered gravitropism. During the bombardment transformation of Chinese wheat cultivar ‘Jingdong 6’, a recessive remarkably dwarf wheat mutant named ‘s-dwarf’ (super dwarf wheat) was created. It was severely dwarf and gibberellic acid insensitive. The relative water loss...

Author(s): Xiuhai Zhang, Xuqing Chen, Zhongyi Wu, Xiaodong Zhang, Conglin Huang, Mingqing Cao

October 2005

Biodegradation of some agricultural residues by fungi in agitated submerged cultures

Digestibility of agricultural residues in animal feeding is deeply dependent on the amounts and types of their fibers. Biological treatment of agricultural residues is a new method for improvement of digestibility. Therefore, the capacity of a few fungi in biodegradation of some agricultural residues was studied. Losses of crude fiber (CF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of wheat, barley,...

Author(s): A. A. Safari Sinegani, G. Emtiazi, S. Hajrasuliha, and H. Shariatmadari

October 2005

Influence of breweries effluent discharge on the microbiological and physicochemical quality of Ikpoba River, Nigeria

The bacteriological and physicochemical qualities of the Ikpoba River, Benin city was investigated to assessed the extent of pollution of the water due to effluent discharge from the two brewery industries in Benin City. The bacteriological parameters analyzed were total microbial population counts, which had values ranging from 1.0 x 103 to 4.8 x 103 cfu/ml and 1.3 x 107 to 5.7 x 107 cfu/ml for the...

Author(s): Ekhaise, F. O. and Anyasi, C. C.  

October 2005

Consumer awareness and attitudes toward GM foods in Kenya

A survey of 604 consumers was conducted in Nairobi, Kenya, in November and December 2003, at three points of sale (supermarkets, kiosks, and posho mills) to determine consumer awareness and attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods. Above a third (38%) of the respondents were aware of GM crops, mostly from newspapers, television and radio. Others had learned about GM crops at school. Newspapers and television...

Author(s): Simon Chege Kimenju, Hugo De Groote, Joseph Karugia, Stephen Mbogoh and David Poland

October 2005

Effect of biological and chemical preservatives on the shelf life of West African soft cheese

The effect of biological extracts on the storage qualities of West African soft cheese was evaluated in a completely randomized design model within a 15-day period. The control and the treated cheeses were stored under ambient temperature and assessed for the pH, titrable acidity, moisture content and crude protein. The pH and titrable acidity rose (P<0.05) with ginger extract preservant. The crude protein and...

Author(s): Belewu, M.A., Belewu, K.Yb. and Nkwunonwo, C.C.

October 2005

Constituents of Kawal, fermented Cassia obtusifolia leaves, a traditional food from Chad

Femented leaves of Cassia obtusifolia are used as a substitute of meat or an appetizing agent by people of eastern of Chad and south of Sudan. Chemical composition of the methylene chloride extract from the fermented leaves of this legume was analyzed for the first time by GC and GC/MC. Thirty three constituents were identified. The major components are found to be aliphatic acids and identified as hexanoic...

Author(s): Mbailao MBAIGUINAM, Yaya MAHMOUT, Mianpereum TARKODJIEL, Bernard DELOBEL and Jean-Marie BESSIERE

October 2005

Proximate and mineral composition of four edible mushroom species from South Western Nigeria

Results of proximate analysis of four edible species of mushroom collected from Akoko land in Ondo state, Nigeria indicate that Termitomyces mammiformis was a very good source of crude protein (37%), crude fiber (7%), ash (10%), calcium (216 g/kg dry weight) and manganese (136 mg/kg dry weight (dw)). Russula vescawas the richest in carbohydrate (71%) and magnesium (14 g/kg), while Lactarius...

Author(s): Adejumo, T. O. and Awosanya, O. B.

October 2005

Nutritional composition of sorghum bicolor starch hydrolyzed with amylase from Rhizopus sp.

The partially purified amylase extracted from a local isolate of Rhizopus sp. was used for hydrolysis of Sorghum bicolor starch. The amylolytic activity of the enzyme was 45.33 U/g and the protein content was 0.345 mg/ml. The maximum temperature for the enzyme was obtained at 55°C while it acts best at pH 5.0. The percentage increase of 1.62, 21.00 and 1.42% for the fat, protein and carbohydrate...

Author(s): ADEBIYI A. O, ADEBIYI, A. P AND OLANIYI, E.O.

October 2005

Indigenous West African plants as novel sources of polysaccharide degrading enzymes: application in the reduction of the viscosity of cereal porridges

Ethnobotanical and biochemical surveys revealed that some local plants from West Africa are novel sources of polysaccharide degrading enzymes such as amylases and glucanases. The study shows that these enzymes could be used for various biotechnological applications. In a crude extract of Curculigo pilosa, ß-amylase was the main starch hydrolyzing enzyme. Contrary to other plant amylases, the ß-amylase...

Author(s): Mamoudou H. Dicko, Riet Hilhorst, and Alfred S. TRAORE

October 2005

Determination of nitrate, nitrite, N- nitrosamines, cyanide and ascorbic acid contents of fruit juices marketed in Nigeria

The nitrate, nitrite, N- nitrosamines and ascorbic acid content as well as the levels of cyanide in eight brands of fruit juices and twelve brands of sachet water commonly marketed and consumed in Nigeria were estimated. The mean values of nitrate ranged from 2.29±0.05 to 16.50±1.21 mg/L for the juices and 0.64±0.21 to 7.56±3.10 mg/L for sachet water. While the mean concentration of nitrite...

Author(s): Okafor P.N. and Nwogbo E.

October 2005

The role of pH in heavy metal detoxification by bio-sorption from aqueous solutions containing chelating agents

The high level of toxic metal pollution in the environment is a result of increased human activities. The hydrogen ion concentration of solutions has been known to affect reactions in solutions. The role of pH in As(V), Pb(II) and Hg(II) ions detoxification by bio-sorption from aqueous solutions using coconut fiber and sawdust waste biomass, containing chelating agents was studied. pH characteristically influenced...

Author(s): J.C. Igwe , E.C.Nwokennaya and A.A. Abia.

October 2005

Competitive adsorption of Zn (II), Cd (II) AND Pb (II) ions from aqueous and non- aqueous solution by maize cob and husk

Heavy metals rank as major environmental pollutants. Industrial wastewater effluents carry admixtures of these heavy metals. The competitive adsorption of Zn2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ metal ions from aqueous and non-aqueous solutions by unmodified and modified maize cob and husk was investigated. The results showed that maximum adsorption occurred at 495.9 mg/g for Zn2+ ion, 456.7 mg/g for Pb2+ ion and...

Author(s): IGWE J. C..,OGUNEWE D. N. and ABIA A. A.

October 2005

Isolation and characterization of amylase from fermented cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) waste-water

The processing of cassava tubers for the production of nutrient enriched cassava flour, gari and farinha madioca, is usually accompanied with the production of stinking wastewater which usually constitute nuisance to both terrestrial and aquatic life. Thus, this study sought to assess the potential utilization of the wastewater as a source of industrial amylase. Wastewater from cassava mash fermented with pure strains...

Author(s): Ganiyu Oboh

October 2005

Multielement analyses of human scalp hair samples from three distant towns in southeastern Nigeria

Hair samples were collected from three distant towns in Southeastern Nigeria and analyzed for their contents of the trace metals, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, Cu, and Cr by atomic absorption spectrometry. Higher geometric mean values for Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu, and Cr were obtained in hair samples of donors from the industrialized areas, Aba and Onitsha. Higher levels of Pb and Cr were observed in hair samples of male donors while higher...

Author(s): NNOROM, I.C., IGWE, J.C. and EJIMONE, J.C.

October 2005

Cadmium determination in cigarettes available in Nigeria

Cadmium (Cd) contents were determined in 30 brands of tobacco cigarette commonly available in Nigeria by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The concentration of Cd in the cigarettes ranged from 0.7 to 2.3 μg/g dry weight with mean 1.48 ± 0.46 μg/g. Higher Cd concentrations were found in imported brands (1.52 ± 0.46 μg/g) compared to the Nigerian brands...

Author(s): NNOROM I. C., OSIBANJO O., OJI-NNOROM C. G.

October 2005

Trace metal contents of facial (make-up) cosmetics commonly used in Nigeria

Several facial cosmetics available in Nigeria were analyzed for their contents of the heavy metals; lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel, zinc and iron. The levels of chromium, iron and zinc were much higher in the samples than those of the non-essential toxic metals; lead, cadmium and nickel. The range of the geometric average for the various cosmetics is: Fe, 97-256 μg/g; Ni, 8-13 μg/g; Pb, 87-123 μg/g; and Zn,...

Author(s): NNOROM, I.C., IGWE, J.C. and OJI-NNOROM C.G.

October 2005

Probable functions and remobilisation of calcium oxalates in Musa L.

The occurrence and distribution of calcium oxalate crystals were investigated in the young and ageing structures of Musa L. cultivars. The calcium oxalate crystals were tested histochemically and examined using light microscopy. The studies revealed the presence of varying forms of the crystals including intra-amylar, solitary and raphide bundles in the different tissues and organs. Remobilization and...

Author(s): OSUJI, J.O. and NDUKWU, B.C.

October 2005

The extraction of proteins from the neem seed (Indica azadirachta A. Juss)

Techniques for maximizing the extraction of protein from the neem seed (Indica azadirachta A. Juss) were investigated. Extractants used were sodium chloride and sodium sulphate solutions of varying concentration and pH. Maximum extraction of 17.86 g of extractable protein was obtained from 1 kg of crude protein, using 0.5 M NaCl solution at pH of 7.5. All the extracts were devoid of the usual neem smell and its bitter...

Author(s): Usman, L. A., Ameen O. M., Ibiyemi S. A. and Muhammad, N. O.

October 2005

Effect of environmental factors on nitrifying bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of Setaria italica (L.) Beauv

Nitrification is a biological process in which nitrifying bacteria oxidise ammonia to nitrate. The process is sensitive to environmental factors such as temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, and available substrate.  In the present study, the effects of pH, temperature and neem oil on Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacterisolated from the rhizosphere of foxtail millet, Setaria italica, were...

Author(s): K. Vijaya Bhaskar, and P.B.B.N. Charyulu

October 2005

Microbiological and toxicological studies on cellulose generated from agricultural wastes

A pharmaceutical excipient is required to meet certain minimum standards for use in the manufacture of dosage forms. In this study, two of such requirements, microbiological and toxicological suitability, was investigated in respect of cellulose powder derived from an agricultural waste, maize cob. Microbial count data were obtained by inoculating a suspension of the cellulose into various types of agar. We also studied...

Author(s): Raymon I. Ozolua, Eric K.I. Omogbai, John O. Akerele, Augustine O. Okhamafe

October 2005

Serum total protein, albumin and globulin levels in Trypanosoma brucei-infected rabbits: Effect of orally administered Scoparia dulcis

The effect of orally administered Scoparia dulcis on Trypanosoma brucei-induced changes in serum total protein, albumin and globulin were investigated in rabbits over a period of twenty eight days. Results obtained show that infection resulted in hyperproteinaemia, hyperglobulinaemia and hypoalbuminaemia. However these lesions were less severe (p<0.05) in the infected and treated group relative to...

Author(s): N. E. J.  Orhue, E. A. C. NWANZE and A. OKAFOR

October 2005

Composition and antimicrobial activities of the leaf and flower essential oils of Lippia chevalieri and Ocimum canum from Burkina Faso

The essential oils of the air dried leaves and flowers of Lippia chevalieri Moldenke and Ocimum canum Sims from Burkina Faso were analysed by GC-MS. Essential oil of the leaves of L. chevalieri is composed mainly of thymol (27.4%), p-cymene (21.1%), and 2-phenyl-ethyl-propionate (12.6%), while the oils from flower is composed of b-elemene (33%), ethyl cinnamate (30.3%)...

Author(s): Bassole IHN, Nebie R, Savadogo A, Ouattara CT, Barro N and Traore SA        

October 2005

Combretum woodii (Combretaceae) leaf extracts have high activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria

Dried ground leaves of Combretum woodii were extracted with 10 different solvents (hexane, diisopropyl ether, diethyl ether, methylene dichloride, ethyl acetate, tetrahydrofuran, acetone, ethanol, methanol and water) to determine the best extractant for subsequent isolation and characterization of antibacterial compounds. With the exception of the water extract, which had no antibacterial activity, the other...

Author(s): J. N. Eloff, J. O. Famakin and D. R. P. Katerere

October 2005

Isolation of an antibacterial stilbene from Combretum woodii (Combretaceae) leaves

Acetone extracts of C. woodii leaf powder was separated by solvent-solvent partition into six fractions. The highest total activity was in the chloroform fraction. This fraction contained mainly one compound active against S. aureus. This compound was isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation using silica gel open column chromatography and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass...

Author(s): J N Eloff, J O Famakin and D R P Katerere

October 2005

Effect of natural honey on local isolates of diarrhea-causing bacteria in southwestern Nigeria

The antimicrobial effect of natural honey on diarrhea-causing bacteria in southwestern Nigeria was investigated. The following bacteria were evaluated:Escherichia coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enterocolitis and Shigella dysenteriae. The natural honey samples used were effective in inhibiting the growth of all the test organisms with zones of inhibition ranging from 5.0 to 20.0 mm except...

Author(s): T.T. Adebolu

October 2005

The susceptibility of Escherichia coli strains to essential oils of Rormarinus officinalis and Eucalyptus globulus

Essential oils are frequently used for flavour and fragrance in the perfume, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. They are also suitable raw material for production of new synthetic agents. The antibacterial activity of the essential oils obtained by steam distillation of Rosmarinus officinalis L and Eucalyptus globules collected in south Morocco was studied by micro-atmospheric technique...

Author(s): K. Mounchid , F. Bourjilat, N. Dersi, T. Aboussaouira, A. Rachidai, A. Tantaoui-Elaraki, M. Alaoui-Ismaili.

October 2005

Protective effect of Ziziphus mauritiana leaf extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury

Protective effect of ethanol extract of Ziziphus mauritiana leaf was studied on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage. Pretreatment of rats with 200 and 300 mg/kg body wt of Z. mauritiana leaf extract protected rats against carbon tetrachloride liver injury by significantly lowering aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), alanine aminotransamine (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TB),...

Author(s): Dahiru, D, William, E.T. and Nadro, M.S.

October 2005

Cloning and expression of Phanerochaete chrysosporium cellobiohydrolase (cbhI.2)

The Phanerochaete chrysosporium ME446 cbhI.2 cDNA was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli using a pET system. Pulse-labelling revealed the expression of an induced protein of approximately 50-60 kDa that reacted with anti-P. chrysosporium ME446 CBH antibodies. The expressed protein remained undegraded in vivo for 135 min but was biologically inactive in vitro.  ...

Author(s): Howard RL

October 2005

Refolding and characterisation of a heterologous expressed Phanerochaete chrysosporium cellobiohydrolase (CBHI.2)

Cloned Phanerochaete chrysosporium ME446 cbhI.2 cDNA was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli as an insoluble, internal, biologically inactive protein.In vitro chemical refolding restored the activity of the crude CBHI.2. However, this enzyme was active against 4-methylumbelliferyl-ß-D-cellobioside (MUC) and 4-methyllumbelliferyl-ß-D-lactopyranoside (MUL) substrates...

Author(s): Howard RL

October 2005

Assessing genetic diversity of some Anthurium andraeanum Hort. cut-flower cultivars using RAPD markers

Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers fingerprinting were used to assess the level of genetic variations among 24 cut-flower Anthurium andraeanum Hort. cultivars.  Eight decamer primers produced a total of 98 reproducible PCR bands that were used to calculate the Nei and Li’s genetic distance (GDNL) coefficients amongst the cultivars.  GDNL values ranged from 0.018 to 0.163...

Author(s): Prakash Nowbuth, Govindranathsing Khittoo, Theeshan Bahorun, Shadila Venkatasamy

October 2005

Genetic diversity within the genus Cynotilapia and its phylogenetic position among Lake Malawi’s mbuna cichlids

  Cynotilapia’s unicuspid teeth, a unique character used to delineate it from all other mbuna genera, leaves evolutionary biologists wondering which is the closest relative to this genus among mbuna cichlids. This genus has only two described species out of the 10-13 species/taxa, whereby the undescribed taxa are either known by their colouration or place where they occur. AFLP genetic marker was...

Author(s):   Daud Kassam, Shingo Seki , Bosco Rusuwa, Aggrey J.D. Ambali  and Kosaku Yamaoka        

September 2005

Intake, digestion and nitrogen balance of diets blended with urea treated and untreated cowpea husk by growing rabbit

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of rabbits fed diets blended with or without urea treated cowpea husk. A total of 30-forty two day old rabbits with an average initial weight of 650 ± 1.5 g were allocated in completely randomized design to three dietary treatments containing 25% cowpea husk with the following treatments; untreated (control, A), 1% urea-treated (B) and 3% urea treated (C)....

Author(s): J.A. Oluokun