African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12487

Table of Content: September 2003; 2(9)

September 2003

Mycotoxins in food in West Africa: current situation and possibilities of controlling it

  This review presents the different mycotoxins (aflatoxins, fumonisins and ochratoxin A) produced in agricultural crops in the West African sub-region. The acute and chronic toxic effects of the various mycotoxins are presented. Maize and groundnuts have been found to be excellent substrate for aflatoxin contamination, while fumonisins are widely distributed in maize. Other food products for which...

Author(s): S.A. Bankole and A. Adebanjo

September 2003

Mevastatin-induced inhibition of cell growth in avocado suspension cultures and reversal by isoprenoid compounds

  Cell suspension cultures were established using soft, friable callus derived from nucellar tissue of ‘Hass’ avocado (Persea americana Mill.) seed from fruit harvested 190 days after full bloom. Cell cultures were maintained in liquid medium supplemented with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), isopentenyl adenine (iP) and sucrose and sub-cultured at 14 day intervals. Growth was typically sigmoidal...

Author(s): Dudley I. Mitchell and A. Keith Cowan

September 2003

Phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses of gypsy group retrotransposon families in the Egyptian cotton Gossypium barbadense

  Gypsy group retrotransposons in the Egyptian cotton, Gossypium barbadense, was  examined by phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses.  DNA sequences ofgypsy group retrotransposons in two G. barbadense cultivars revealed that these sequences are heterogeneous and represent two distinct families. Sequence variation between these families seems to preserve coding...

Author(s): Abdel Ghany A. Abdel Ghany and Essam A. Zaki

September 2003

Effects of sulphuric acid and hot water treatments on seed germination of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L)

  A study was carried out to investigate the effects of sulphuric acid and hot water treatments on the germination of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L). Seeds were placed on moistened filter papers in 28 cm diameter Petri dishes under laboratory condition for germination. 330 seeds of T.  indica  (10 seeds per Petri dish) with three replicates each were used. The highest germination was...

Author(s): S. Muhammad and   N. A. Amusa

September 2003

Heavy metals concentrations and burden in the bivalves (Anadara (Senilia) senilis, Crassostrea tulipa and Perna perna) from lagoons in Ghana: Model to describe mechanism of accumulation/excretion

  Seasonal sampling of the bivalves: Anadara (Senilia) senilis (n = 260), Crassostrea tulipa (n = 220), from two ‘open’ lagoons (Benya and Ningo) and a ‘closed’ lagoon (Sakumo), and Perna perna (n = 170), from rocky shores adjacent to Benya and Sakumo, were analyzed for their total Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd and Hg concentrations and total body burden (that is...

Author(s): Fred A. Otchere

September 2003

Petroleum degrading potentials of single and mixed microbial cultures isolated from rivers and refinery effluent in Nigeria

  The ability of three bacterial isolates (Bacillus spp, Micrococcus spp and Proteus spp.) and some fungal species (Penicillin spp., Aspergillus spp. and Rhizopus spp.) isolated from two rivers and refinery effluent to degrade two Nigerian Crude oils was studied. The results showed changes in pH, optical density and total viable count for the bacterial isolates after a 17-day period....

Author(s): P.O. Okerentugba and O.U. Ezeronye

September 2003

Drilling fluid base oil biodegradation potential of a soil Staphylococcus species

  Staphylococcus sp. isolated from oil-contaminated soil was grown in 1% drilling fluid base oil, HDF- 2000, as a sole source of carbon and energy. The organism has strong affinity for the substrate, growing at the rate of 0.16 h-1. It uses adherence and emulsification as mechanisms for oil uptake. In a nutrient-rich marine broth, base oil (up to 2.0% v/v) and glucose (up to 1.6% w/v) have no significant...

Author(s): C. O. Nweke and G. C. Okpokwasili

September 2003

Enzyme activity of a Phanerochaete chrysosporium cellobiohydrolase (CBHI.1) expressed as a heterologous protein from Escherichia coli

  The aim of this study was to produce a secreted, heterologously expressedPhanerochaete chrysosporium cellobiohydrolase (CBHI.1) protein that required no in vitro chemical refolding and to investigate the cellulolytic activity of the clone expressing the glutathione S-transferase (GST) fused CBHI.1 protein.   Plate enzyme activity screening of E. coli cells transformed with...

Author(s): Howard R.L., Masoko P. and Abotsi E.

September 2003

Effect of ripening on the composition and the suitability for jam processing of different varieties of mango (Mangifera indica)

  As part of an effort to solve the problem of post harvest losses of fruits, physicochemical characteristics of four mango varieties (Palmer, Améliorée, Mango and Keitt) were determined at two ripening stages. Their suitability for jam processing was also evaluated based on viscosity measurements. The pulps of pre-ripe mangoes were highly acidic (pH: 3.50 – 3.85), rich in starch (4.4...

Author(s): Germain Kansci, Benoit Bargui Koubala, Israel Mbome Lape

September 2003

Response of Trypanosoma brucei brucei–induced anaemia to a commercial herbal preparation

  Jubi Formula® is a herbal preparation made from three medicinal herbs (Parquetina nigrescens, Sorghum bicolor and Harungana madagascariensis).  It has been reported to have been successfully used in the treatment of anaemia in humans. A study was therefore carried out to determine the effect of the preparation on packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations in...

Author(s): Patrick O Erah, Canice C Asonye and Augustine O Okhamafe

September 2003

The influence of African Herbal Formula on the haematological parameters of trypanosome infected rats

  A herbal mixture of herbs code named African Herbal Formula (AFH) influenced the state of anaemia in trypanosome infected rats. Observations showed that the formula has an effect on the haemopoietic system manifested by a positive increase in the levels of haemoglobin, packed cell volume and red blood cell while the white blood cell and lymphocyte levels were decreased. AHF also delayed the proliferation of...

Author(s): Okochi VI, Okpuzor J, Okubena MO, Awoyemi AK

September 2003

In vitro trypanocidal effect of methanolic extract of some Nigerian savannah plants

  Methanol extracts from twenty three plants harvested from the Savannah vegetation belt of Nigeria were analyzed in vitro for trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Trypanosoma congolense at concentrations of 4 mg/ml, 0.4 mg/ml and 0.04 mg/ml. Extracts of Khaya senegalensis, Piliostigma reticulatum, Securidacalongepedunculata and Terminalia...

Author(s): S.E. Atawodi, T. Bulus, S. Ibrahim, D.A. Ameh, A.J. Nok, M. Mamman, M. Galadima

September 2003

Plasmid profile of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 from apparently healthy animals

  One hundred samples from healthy animals were screened for the presence of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli 0157: H7 and 17 were positive for EHEC 0157:H7 after confirmation using serology kits. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns showed the isolates to be highly susceptible to the various antibiotics screened with a few showing multiple antibiotic resistance. The plasmid profiles revealed that...

Author(s): Smith SI, Aboaba OO, Odeigha P, Shodipo K, Adeyeye JA, Ibrahim A, Adebiyi T, Onibokun H and Odunukwe NN

September 2003

Larvaecidal effects of aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica (neem) on the larvae of Anopheles mosquito

  The effect of crude aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica (neem) against the larvae of Anopheles mosquito was investigated. Exposure of the larvae to undiluted extracts of seed oil, leaf and bark for 12 hours led to 100, 98, and 48% mortality, respectively. Dilution of these extracts also resulted in mortality of the larvae. We suggest that the seed oil and leaf extract of neem contain...

Author(s): ALIERO, B.L.