African Journal of
Business Management

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Bus. Manage.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1993-8233
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJBM
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 4131

Full Length Research Paper

Evaluation of the factors that affect performances of active football referees in Turkey

Seydi Karakus1, Hakan Salim Caglayan2* and Hamdi Pepe3
1Dumlupinar University, School of Physical Education and Sports, Department of Sports Management, Kütahya, Turkey. 2Selcuk University, School of Physical Education and Sports, Department of Sports Management, Konya, Turkey. 3Selcuk University, School of Physical Education and Sports, Department of Physical Education and Sports Teacher, Konya, Turkey.   *  
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 03 May 2011
  •  Published: 30 September 2013


The research was carried out for the purpose of evaluating the factors affecting performances of active football referees who function in different categories. Thesurvey method was used in the research in order to describe an existing situation. The research group is composed of 108 referees (FIFA = 4, senior referees = 37, senior assistant referees = 50, state referees = 17) who actively officiated in the 2008/2009 football season depending on the Turkish Football Federation. The scale consisting of a total of 50 items: 42 questions aiming to evaluate the factors affecting performances of referees and 8 questions on personal knowledge of them, was used as a data collection tool in the research. The Cronbach-alpha reliability coefficient of the developing scale was calculated as 0.78. Frequency (n) among the described statistical methods was used for the countable data, while the arithmetic average () and standard deviation (sd) were used for the data whose percent values were measurable. As a result of the research, important facts have been obtained: related authorities should approach referee incomes more scrupulously; Turkish Football Federation Central Board of Arbitration should perform a bright administration and consider the performance criteria of referees in assignments and promotions; contrary to the common beliefs of everyone (media, spectator and sports commentator), referees work quite professionally (that is, they are not affected by pressure of spectators and do not lose their control in a match); Turkish Football Federation Central Arbitration Organisation should evaluate the contents of the education programs, both in form and substance, in which referees participate in; referees that work dynamically, and compose the research group, are disturbed by comments of ex-referees who gave up their jobs and by media’s publications; and club managers, especially big club managers, should be more careful with their statements in the media.


Key words: Football referee, sports management, performance.