African Journal of
Business Management

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Bus. Manage.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1993-8233
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJBM
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 4179

Full Length Research Paper

A study of brand attributes: Cross-industries and implications

Stephen Wen-Hung Wang* and Hsu-Han Tang
Department of Shipping and Transportation Management, National Taiwan Ocean University, Taiwan.  
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 27 July 2011
  •  Published: 30 September 2011


This study examined the model of brand attributes proposed by Keller (1993). Higher-order confirmatory factor analysis (HCFA) was utilized to confirm each dimension of brand attributes and examine measurement properties. A survey was conducted by both paper-based and online questionnaire. Levi jeans and Nokia cell phones are the two product categories. Reliability and factor analyses show that brand attributes can be differentiated based on intrinsic attributes and extrinsic attributes. Additionally, extrinsic attributes can be divided into the following four hierarchical measurement indexes: price, user imagery, usage imagery, and brand personality. Furthermore, the explanation powers of both extrinsic and intrinsic attributes are different from Levi and Nokia.


Key words: Brand attributes, confirmatory factor analysis, brand personality, brand image.