African Journal of
Business Management

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Bus. Manage.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1993-8233
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJBM
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 4167

Full Length Research Paper

Solidarity economy, social and cooperative enterprises: The view of citizens in Greece

Theodossiou George
  • Theodossiou George
  • Department of Business Administration, School of Business and Economics, National Road, Larissa-Trikala TK 41110, Greece.
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Rigas John
  • Rigas John
  • Bain Capital Credit, United Kingdom.
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Goulas Αpostolos
  • Goulas Αpostolos
  • Department of Planning and Regional Development, School of Engineering, University of Thessaly, Greece.
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Rigas George
  • Rigas George
  • Department of Animal Production, Technological Educational Institution of Thessaly (TEI), Larissa (ΤΚ 41100), Greece.
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  •  Received: 03 November 2018
  •  Accepted: 13 December 2018
  •  Published: 28 January 2019


This paper investigated the factorial composition and the internal coherence of α questionnaire on Solidarity Economy (SE) and Social and Cooperative Enterprises (SCE) based on data gathered from a sample of 214 citizens region of Thessaly. The questionnaire consists of three categories of questions that refer to: a) citizens' statements related to Social and Cooperative Enterprises (scale A); b) barriers to the Development of the Social Entrepreneurship (scale B) and c) charm of a collective enterprise (scale C). Social economy includes all cooperatives, credit unions, non-profit and voluntary organizations, charities, municipal enterprises, and Social and Cooperative Enterprises that use the market mechanism for social benefit. It includes profit-making social organizations that they distribute to members. Social Economy is the only system aimed at the prosperity of society, equality and democracy. Solidarity economy is more a strategy and in this terms, works as an adding value to the social economy. The solidarity economy defines the roles of individuals who participate in organizations with a social purpose. Factor and cluster analysis identified 8 factors for scale A, 6 for scale B and 5 for scale C, which interpret 79.40, 77.78 and 85.20% of the total variance in the respective data sets. The variance analysis (ANOVA) showed that the most important factors of scale A can be considered: (1) Supporting a SCE with cash or voluntary work; 2) Voluntary work offer; 3) SCE are collective property companies and act democratically, and 4) SCE must be adequately funded by the state, because in any of the independent of scale B, the lack of knowledge and of scale C the sensitivity to environmental protection and creating a new culture with social sensitivity.


Key words: Social and solidarity economy (SSE), social and cooperative enterprises (SCE), questionnaire, scale, factor analysis, cluster analysis.