The evolution in thinking and paradigms that guide the daily habits and customs of the mankind tends to change the daily routine, this activity is related to events associated with a complex situation and is sometimes unnoticed by the man himself, which constitutes the main been active in this context. This development consists of an adaptation of the thought of man, that is, their needs and their means. So, it is observed that there are needs to review the traditional development model for inserting actual management practices that consider aspects related to respect for society, their health, their values â€‹â€‹and culture, and above all recognize the importance of the environment (Brokaj, 2014). This change process tends to look historical, economic, cultural, gastronomic, technological, climatic factors, religious, family, etc. To complement this statement, deals with the transition habits and customs observed in Brazil in the XIX century that was consumed good quality tea on the tables of Brazilian families, and due to commercial factors related to logistics and distribution of this product, this raw-material was gradually replaced by coffee.
In this context Garcia (2011) reveals that for a long period the tea was the drink served at the tables of Brazilian families. During this period the country was constituted in a good quality tea producer who presented the government's apparent interest in exporting this input, and can take tea samples produced in Rio de Janeiro to be proved by traders in London, then took this to be analyzed according to their marketing capability on the European continent (Garcia, 2011). Yet the culture of tea production in the country did not prevail among other factors influencing this issue it is highlighted a number of factors associated with the abolition of slavery and also the lack of interest from the European market at the time of consuming it, mainly due to issues associated with high monetary value of the Brazilian tea (Garcia, 2011). So it points that issues related to marketing perspective stood out and directly or indirectly influenced the change in eating patterns in the country. The set of factors that lead men to change their habits, can have a global reach, regional and local. Therefore, it is demonstrated in Table 1. Birth rate per thousand inhabitants - Brazil - from 2000 to 2013, shows the evolution of the birth rate in Brazil, where due to changing dynamics in society, Brazilian families are having fewer children and therefore it decreased.
Facing Table 1, it is exposed to reducing the number of births in Brazil, among other reasons for this fact highlights the inclusion of women in the labor market, the most common use of contraceptive methods and the change in relative values â€‹â€‹motherhood. But this event does not occur only in Brazil, actually in many of the countries with the low birth rate considered developed economy constitutes a reality. In developing countries other than Brazil, there is the China that through a birth control policy keeps this rate in low numbers. Given these facts there has been a change of habits in the population, in the first case depicts the change in the consumption of the population before consuming coffee and now consumes tea. In the second case was briefly placed the falling birth rate in Brazil and elsewhere in the world. In the same perspective it turns out that over the past decades globalization, advancing technology and the development of the media has contributed to the deepening of these changes and the diffusion of theories and schools of thought not seen by society since then. This situation also occurs in the tourism and lodging industry.
To Bramwell and Lane (2005) by observing new horizons stand out that in past decades the context of sustainable tourism would be applied to the development of this activity on a small scale, but because of advances in this area it can already be applied to larger proportions tourism. Thus, it turns out that even in the face of the challenges mentioned, the set of ideas about sustainable development is gaining greater application in different areas. According to Sogayar and Rejowski (2011) the main catalysts for change agents are the internationali-zation and globalization, ethics and sustainability. In this study it is highlighted particular attention to the prospect of sustainability understanding that came into being a stronger appeal to issues associated with environmental preservation and maintenance of natural contributions. To Brunacci and Philippi Jr. (2005) sometimes the terms associated with the concepts of sustainability, such as sustainable development, social and environmental sustainability, clean production, are repeated without any applicability or meaning. With this issue, Brunacci and Philippi Jr. (2005) show that the search for sustainability standards are largely related to respect for the terrestrial ecosystem, it means, natural and urban environment, and ultimately, improved quality of life and human well-being. So search the harmony between economic development, the environment, cultural values â€‹â€‹of a region and its society.
The transition to sustainability
In business and in the current tourist market, there is a wide and frequent change of paradigms, so the values â€‹â€‹considered correct in the past decades can sometimes find themselves forgotten or discredited and instead other values â€‹â€‹(guidelines) are observed, which tend to guide the business environment. Therefore, when discussing the project’s topic formulation in the tourism industry it is needed to evaluate the opportunities and examine its consequences. This in order to avoid criticism of the traditional tourist sector that has become common view megacomplexos failure cases built to tourist flows in places hitherto devoid of basic infrastructure. So the study by Burgui (2013) landscape impacts in coastal areas and stood out characteristics of tourism development has been identified, carried out in order to disregard the environment, and social and cultural issues. Among other impacts Burgui (2013) highlights the wide occupation of the territory with the large number of buildings, the removal of native vegetation and natural for deployment of artificial gardens, and finally, the disregard for the environment of the enterprise such as the local population and their culture.
For Burgui (2013) there are other variables associated with the services, which sometimes disregard the different stakeholders in the development of the activity. However, according to Elkington (1994) the area of â€‹â€‹sustainability must present the stabilization of three important aspects, such as environmental, economic and social (Sartori et al., 2014). So Burgui (2013) informs the sun tourism supply and sea, and the purchase and sale of entitled packages "all inclusive", where all services consumed by tourists are offered by the school, without additional spending by tourists in this model Business local people somehow is excluded from productive tourism chain, become limited the possibilities for participation in the development of this activity. Because of this background, it appears that efforts around sustainability are largely related to a global awareness, the result of perception and reflection of man facing climate changes in their environment or environmental appeals observed in several parts of the world. Sartori et al. (2014) presents challenges to be faced when considering the agenda of sustainability, such as the constant search for an integration of economic, environmental, institutional and community; the search for sensitize society; and finally, develop actions and attitudes thought to future generations. Therefore, there is, according to Peres and Resende (2011), a series of events with the proposal to provoke a debate about the development associated with environmental preservation, among them stands out:
1. Club of Rome in 1972 where researchers published a study entitled "Limits to Growth".
2. Statement Cocoyok in 1974 that prompted the debate about the causes of the population explosion and consumption limits of natural resources.
3. Dag Hammarskjöld-report in 1975 along with the Declaration of Cocoyok sought to stimulate changes in ownership and prevent environmental devastation.
4. Brundtland Report in 1987.
5. Rio-92 Conference - in which it aimed to instigate debate and develop concepts associated with environmental protection and sustainable development.
Through these events, we observe that from 1987 it can be seen the emergence and growing number of publications to sustainable term (Bramwell and Lane, 2005). To Brunacci and Philippi (2005) the carried out and the reflection of these events were essential to rethink economic philosophies and social trends. Given this progress were scored as redefine the use of natural resources, control of investments and the criteria of technological development. In this transition process observes the perceptive attention and request of consumers for companies to adopt procedures and processes in order to reduce environmental impacts, and become environmentally friendly. Thus, it is considered that sometimes the search for improved front image to consumers and other stakeholders, organizations incorporate into the daily routine approaches in order to respect the environment and to incorporate practices located in the context of sustainability (Sogayar and Rejowski, 2011). It turns out that portion of these procedures sometimes are part of the daily routine of the organization and are inserted into codes of conduct, classroom training or manuals for employees. Corroborating this scenario also observed the emergence of organizations that develop their activities in favor to the environment or social development, seeking to narrow differences income and ethnic or fighting for better working conditions of most excluded people, for the purpose of creating a more friendly environment, equitable and fair in different contexts of human life.
According to Bramwell and Lane (2005) the objective is to use several ways according to the characteristics of each locality to adjust the development model, among these it is considered tourism development patterns, in order to find the best way the use of natural and cultural resources, as the tourism sector and related areas have broad objectives and the banner of sustainability needs to be part of all this activity. This way is also evident in the consumer market the emergence of numerous seals and social and environmental certificates, which directly or indirectly add value to products and services offered, by enabling consumers pay a little more with the apparent certainty to be contributing to sustainable development. In the tourist market and contemporary aspects associated with sustainable tourism label also become a reality. This and other aspects also occurred in the hosting industry, and so these companies in order to not lose space in the market for competition sought to incorporate this set guidelines, which soon after became a government requirement. In fact, as a result the internal and external pressures equalization and maintenance of existing fauna and flora in different parts of the country the Brazilian government reacted and sought to develop ways to preserve the environment, described in the form of laws.
Therefore, it is observed that sustainability in the environmental sphere is being defended by researchers in the field to expand environment-related services and thus, systematically reduce the amount of material which in turn would impact the nature, environment and society in an area (Sartori et al., 2014). So the companies in the hosting industry aimed to employ and develop sustainability indicators incorporating a set of procedures and processes to their daily operating procedures of these indicators are located on the research carried out by Peres and Resende (2011) when analyzing the hotel industry in Green Hills, Ontario. A table that addresses a set of good practice to the precepts of sustainable development has been developed, these are located in the different dimensions of sustainability (Peres and Resende, 2011), and they are classified as Sustainability Management Index (IGS). It should be informed that in this study it was chosen to highlight only the guidelines raised by Peres and Resende (2011) on the environmental and socio-cultural spheres as shown in Table 2 Sustainability Indicators in Lodging Facilities.
Table 2 shows a set of practices that can be adopted in the hosting industry to diminish the impact on different dimensions of where entrepreneurship is installed. For purposes of this study, it is considered that these new technologies, processes and practices are evolving daily, as it continually aims to think and rethink new ways of working. So are sought ways to become less aggressive companies to the environment in which they are embedded. After all it is observed the apparent increase in government requirements as well as consumer expectations for organizations to voluntarily become correct in environmental, cultural and social, because, this way, this will attract the attention of your customers (Peres and Resende, 2011), before this scenario the organization's managers will have to choose, even if unintentionally, adopting these practices.
Brazilian system of classification and sustainability parameters
Scholars through their research focused on demonstrating the relationship between development and sustainability. In the design and development of their research Sartori et al. (2014) presents a set of terms and words associated with the issue of sustainability, which are day-to-day lives and in everyday society. The definition elaborated by Burgui (2013) concerning the sustainable development in tourism becomes possible to identify a number of expressions which together account for this activity, among them are located the preservation of natural resources, the satisfaction of tourists and income generation in the long term. After describing the process of public management of tourism in the context of sustainability in Albania and Brokaj (2014) reveals that this process is essential to demonstrate the government's position regarding the development of the tourism activity and its regulatory standards. Brokaj (2014) demonstrated through their research the role of government with regard to their responsibilities, development and political control in Albania. Because of this, it was aimed to expose this research only the criteria that are considered in the context of sustainability, among these:
1. Protection of environmental features and management of visitors to natural resources.
2. Encouraging the local community in support of tourism activities.
3. Conservation of spaces open to the public and influence on the target community.
4. Search for the artistic and cultural development of the local community as a positive activity often focused on
Through these notes made, Brokaj (2014) it is considered that the perceptions of respondents about the tourism practice in the sphere of sustainability, on the benefits generated, primarily in the economic sphere, for example, generation of opportunities, jobs and income, the role the local government has to be limited to the control of cultural assets, such as the museums located in this tourist destination. In Brazil the business perspective aspects in the sphere of sustainability even if belatedly began to enter in governmental regulations governing the market and to a limited extent environmental and social approach became part of everyday life of organizations. Tourism and lodging industry this was no different, and so the search for a classification and standardization of lodging facilities at national level there is a lot of misconceptions. This happens to be better observed at the end of the 70 in which it sought to establish standards for this sector, so it was created the classification of lodging facilities in Brazil. This categorization has failed, among the reasons cited by Menezes and Silva (2013) presenting the findings that intended the building facilities, 70% of requirements and settled only 30% of these requirements to the services provided by the enterprise, it was noted then found that it needed a better analysis for their classification. For the purpose of this research is considered that this categorization might already have given further guidance to the services offered, as relevant part of the activities of lodging facilities happens through the provision of services, and when it is successful tends to generate value to its guests and to ensure the return of its enterprise customers.
Among the most adequate reasons for this fact there is the land area of â€‹â€‹our country which sometimes has given rise to enterprises with features and different proposals, which in most destinations the projects sought to suit the needs, expectations and culture their guests. Thus, it turns out that the classification of this sector becomes priority because it is observed that aspects associated with standardization and classification of enterprises in turn comes to add the qualification of these and to better target their customers in relation to the hosting that they will stay in. In 1998, it was approved a new regulation that sought to classify the hosting projects into four types, the Brazilian Certification System, as it was called then established the National Institute of Metrology, Standardization and Quality (INMETRO) as regulator (Menezes and Silva, 2013). In 2002 through a pioneering initiative between Embratur and the ABIH established according to Petrocchi (2007), apud (Menezes and Silva, 2013), the General Regulations of Lodging Facilities and the Regulations of Official System of Classification of Lodging Facilities, seeking as in previous classification systems classify enterprises operating in the hosting industry in Brazil.
This matrix indicated that the projects could be arranged in six categories, and inserted major innovations in this sector such as the National Paper of Guest Registration - FNRH, which since then assists the safety of lodging facilities, as through this tool has access to important data of guests such as full name, date of birth, social security number or passport (if foreigner), e-mail, telephone and full address. But Brazil (2012) demonstrated the interest of the Ministry of Tourism to replace the FNRH by electronic records. In attempt to ease access to data of guests, and regulate the sector, it is necessary to ease access to the data of movement of tourists in the country. The declaration of the daily movement of guests in Brazil is mandatory, according to the Tourism Law. So according to Brazil (2012) the hosting enterprise needs to be registered in the Register System of individuals and companies - Cadastur, to join this system. The supply of such chips is mandatory for all establishments that operate legally and have therefore record in Cadastur. By 2012, however, most of these papers was lost and the information of most travelers did not reach the database Ministry of Tourism. With the scanning system, however, a large number of establishments has abandoned the printed form. Some even began to allow the client to fill these home information, the site, the so-called "web check-in". The goal by the 2014 World Cup was to deploy the digital platform in about 50% of lodging facilities that are in Cadastur the Tourism Ministry, which corresponds to approximately 3700 projects, including hotels, inns and hostels (BRAZIL, 2012).
Another important innovation established by the Rating Matrix deployed in Brazil in 2002 was the need of the Hotel Incident Report - HIR, which contributed and contributes to the improvement of statistics on occupancy rate of lodging facilities, through it obtained statistics like the guests' profile and other data on tourism. Among the reasons for this classification matrix not get the desired success highlights the fact that this does not encompass and address the disparities and other differences located in the lodging facilities installed in the country (Menezes and Silva, 2013). So in 2008 he aimed to develop and carry out research in order to develop a new classification matrix, more current and is under Brazilian reality. Thus, it sought to measure the applicability and functionality requirements and other components of this code experiencing it in lodging facilities in different regions of Brazil (Menezes and Silva, 2013). Thus, it was created and formulated the SBClass in order to match the services offered in the hosting industry in Brazil to international standards. So it turns out that the star rating system has new requirements, and that before deploying them sought to develop ways with the apparent purpose to determine whether they measure up to these real situation of the lodging facilities installed in markets and territorial limits Brazil (Menezes and Silva, 2013).
In this scenario, the national hosting industry through guidelines inserted by EMBRATUR with support and partnership of other entities, among them the Ministry of Tourism, Inmetro, the Brazilian Society of Metrology and civil society made the Technical Cooperation Agreement No. 002 of 26 March, 2009 (BRASIL, 2011b), has considered the prospect of sustainability in the classification matrix lodging facilities approved in 2011 (BRASIL, 2011a). The aspects covered by the Classification Brazilian System are analyzed by a representative of the Inmetro, these have mandatory requirements (obligatory) and elective (BRASIL, 2011b). In this perspective for the project receive a certificate of participation and compliance with these requirements will have to achieve 100% of mandatory requirements and 30% of elective requirements. It is found that this assessment has a period of 36 months where this period there will be a new assessment. Through the Regulation of Matrix Lodging Facilities Classification (2011) it appears that the criteria investigated are the infrastructure, services and sustainability (BRASIL, 2011a). Due to this scenario the current managers to develop projects for the installation of restaurant and hotel or lodging facilities in tourist destinations and receptive cores need to consider factors in order to reach the expectations of visitors (tourists), and not affect aggressively and negatively the quality of life of local people and the rational use of natural and social resources.