African Journal of
Business Management

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Bus. Manage.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1993-8233
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJBM
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 4086

Full Length Research Paper

Professional satisfaction of public university instructors in Bangladesh: A case of Rajshahi University

Saiful Islam
  • Saiful Islam
  • Department of Management Studies, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi 6205, Bangladesh.
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Dhanonjoy Kumar
  • Dhanonjoy Kumar
  • Department of Management, Islamic University, Kushtia, Bangladesh.
  • Google Scholar
Solaiman Chowdhury
  • Solaiman Chowdhury
  • Department of Management Studies, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi 6205, Bangladesh.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 16 April 2019
  •  Accepted: 30 May 2019
  •  Published: 14 June 2019

 ABSTRACT

Professional satisfaction commonly termed as job satisfaction or employee satisfaction has been one of the key contents of human resource management, organizational behavior, and industrial psychology. Satisfied employees can be more productive and can have significant contribution to organizational success. High levels of job satisfaction could also be a sign of emotional wellness or mental fitness. Teaching is a noble profession. Instructors perform a noble duty in the country. Rajshahi University is the second largest public university in Bangladesh. More than eleven hundred Instructors are working here. The study was undertaken with an intention of assessing the degree of professional satisfaction of instructors of different disciplines and positions. Primary and secondary data have been used to achieve the objectives of the study. The questionnaires prepared for this purpose are applied to 205 Instructors who are currently working in Rajshahi University, Bangladesh. It was also intended to identify factors having strong influence on professional satisfaction of the respondents. 70.70% of the Instructors expressed satisfaction about their professional issues. Only 5.9% Instructors reported high satisfaction and 23.4% moderate satisfaction about their jobs. Study leave, scope to express ideas and views and pension facilities were identified as the most attractive professional factors by the respondents. No significant differences were observed between the degree of satisfaction and demographic profile of the respondents.

 

Key words: Public university instructors, professional satisfaction, Rajshahi University, Bangladesh.

 


 INTRODUCTION

The term job satisfaction has been defined by scholars in many ways. According to Robbins and Coulter (2010), “Job satisfaction refers to a person’s general attitude toward his or her job”. Kalleberg (1977) opined that "Job satisfaction refers to an overall affective orientation on the part of individuals toward work  roles  which  they  are presently occupying." Locke (1976) defined job satisfaction as “a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experiences." A large volume number of studies have identified two major groups of variables as important determinants   of   satisfaction.   These  groups   are   the
 
demographic characteristics of the employees and the characteristics of the work environment (Reiner and Zhao, 1999). Identification of personal and environmental factors determining job satisfaction, impact of job satisfaction on employee performance, relation between job satisfaction and turnover intentions, job satisfaction and employee commitment, influence of demographic characteristics (age, gender, experience, education, marital status) on employees satisfaction level are the main research questions addressed by the researchers.
 
Problem statement
 
Competent, committed and contented Instructors are prime preconditions of quality education of all levels. Tertiary education in Bangladesh is provided by public and private sector universities and private and government colleges. Quality education can produce skill manpower who will contribute for socio-economic development of a country. Well-designed curricula, better infrastructural facilities, and good education policy may not ensure quality education if Instructors do not feel satisfied with their jobs. Out of forty public universities Rajshahi University is the second largest university in terms of the number of students, Instructors, departments, institutes, in Bangladesh (Appendix Table A1). The highest numbers of students (36,606) are receiving higher education under 57 departments and 6 institutions. A total of 1157 Instructors, including 218 females of different disciplines are serving the university (Appendix Table A2). 64.31% of the university has higher professional degree, Ph.D. 45.20% of the Instructors are in the rank of professor, 25.84% are serving as associate professors, 24.81% are assistant professors, and only 4.15% are lecturers (Appendix Table A3 to A9).
 
Like other public universities, except the newly established ones, teacher selection in Rajshahi University is done only on the basis of academic records and performance of selection board. Normally toppers desire to be Instructors of university. The Instructors of most of the departments have moderate work load. Promotion policy like other public universities is liberal. Infrastructural facilities including transportation, residence, internet facilities are good. Instructors enjoy the right to form profession association, elect their representatives for Instructors’ association and the syndicate, the highest executive authority of the university. Instructors enjoy liberty to express individual thoughts and opinions. Instructors of all ranks can take part in decision making process as a member of academic committee, professors as a member of faculty and academic council.
 
In Bangladesh some studies have been done on Instructors of private universities; few researches have been carried out on Instructors of both public and private universities to make a comparison between professional satisfaction of public and private sector universities.   This article is an outcome of a project executed under Annual Development Program (ADP) of Rajshahi University.

 


 LITERATURE REVIEW

Research on job satisfaction is extremely an important issue to employers, managers, and policy makers as employees’ satisfaction can greatly influence organizational success. Competent and committed employees can make efficient utilization of other organizational resources. Employees’ commitment towards the job and the employing organization depends largely on their level of job satisfaction. The study on job satisfaction has a history of more than eighty years which began with the publication of Robert Happock’s monograph on job satisfaction in the 1930’s (Khaleque, 1984). Since then a huge number of studies have been done on employees of different professions both in developed and developing countries and in service and manufacturing sectors. According to an estimate of Locke (1976) more than 4000 articles had been published on this topic up to 1976. In Bangladesh a good number of studies have been done on employees of industries, banks, NGOs, and educational institutions.
 
Hossain, (1995) in his PhD dissertation on ‘Job Satisfaction of Commercial Bank Employees in Bangladesh’ observed that public sector bank employees were more satisfied with their job than the private sector bank employees and executives were more satisfied  than non-executives. Propensity to quit the job was found significantly higher among the non-executives than the executives. The study identified significant positive correlation between job satisfaction and performance and significant negative correlation between job satisfaction and job stress, and job satisfaction and propensity to quit the job.
 
Ali and Akhter (2009) investigated level of job satisfaction among the faculty members of private universities of Bangladesh. The study concluded with the facts that faculty members were overall satisfied with their present condition, except the factors like training facilities and some physical facilities and distribution of courses. The study found no significant difference between male and female faculty members regarding job satisfaction.
 
Sadeghi et al. (2012) studied impact of demographic profile on academic staff’s job satisfaction in Malaysian Research Universities. Results were analyzed in terms of intrinsic, extrinsic, and overall job satisfactions. The academic staffs were found to be at the moderate satisfaction level. Gender, academic rank, and age were identified as the influencing factors for academic staff job satisfaction, while their level of education was not.
 
Bari et al. (2013) concluded that freedom, career development plan, valuation of employees, learning programs, open and comfortable  work  environment  and good supervisory relations have positive impacts on employee attitude and performance in the workplace. The researchers suggested that factors having positive impacts on employee attitudes and performance should be rightly focused so that they can enhance the performance of employee and create a positive work environment which will also help grow the institute and its productivity.
 
Zaman et al. (2014) studied the job satisfaction of the faculty of private University in Bangladesh. The study revealed that salary and fringe benefits, opportunity for scholarly pursuit, course load, quality students, office and lab facilities, independency about work, professional relationship and interaction with other faculties, job security, relationship with administration, opportunity to develop new ideas, relationship with immediate superior/ dept, head/Pro-VC/VC and opportunity for promotion e.t.c., significantly influence job satisfaction of faculty members in private universities in Bangladesh. In this study, it is found that only 8 percent are very satisfied about their job. Also 45, 40, 3.33 and 3.33% of the respondents are satisfied, neutral, very dissatisfied and dissatisfied respectively about their job.
 
Bochen et al. (2015) conducted a study on university Instructors of Shenyang, China. The objectives of this study were to assess the level of job satisfaction among university Instructors and to clarify the associated factors. The average score of overall job satisfaction was 69.71. The study revealed that turnover intention, occupational stress and chronic disease all had negative impacts on job satisfaction, whereas perceived organizational support, psychological capital and higher monthly income were positively associated with job satisfaction among the university Instructors. Age was also linked to the level of job satisfaction.
 
Kumar (2016b) conducted a comprehensive study on "Job Satisfaction of Commercial Bank Employees in Bangladesh: An Empirical study "The study indicated that public sector bank employees were more satisfied with their job than the private sector bank employees. The study found a significant positive correlation between job satisfaction and job related variables. The study showed that significant differences existed between employees of public sector banks and private sector banks regarding pay and increments. The employees of private sector banks were more satisfied with pay increments and revisions than those of public sector banks employees. The employees of public sector banks were more satisfied with job security than that of private sector banks employees.
 
Kumar (2016a) investigated impact of compensation on Instructors’ job satisfaction of primary and secondary schools and college Instructors in Bangladesh. The study observed a significant relation between the compensation factors and the job satisfaction of the Instructors. Job advancement, job security, medical service facilities, promotion   facilities,   working   environment, bonus  and other allowances and retirement allowances were reported as the important factors for Instructors’ job satisfaction. Instructors were unhappy with their pay, promotion, retirement allowances, bonus and other benefits, medical facilities and transportation facilities.
 
Tilak and Lalita (2013) investigated the present level of job satisfaction among the private and govt. school Instructors. The study revealed that there was no significant difference in the level of satisfaction of male and female Instructors. The study also revealed that there was no significant difference in the level of satisfaction of government and private school Instructors.
 
Study objectives
 
1. To ascertain overall level of professional satisfaction of Rajshahi University Instructors.
2. To assess individual job facets satisfaction of Rajshahi University Instructors.
3. To identify job facets having more influence on professional satisfaction of the respondents.
4. To identify impact of demographic profile of respondents on their professional satisfaction.
 
Study hypotheses
 
To achieve the objectives of the present study, two null hypotheses were developed:
 
Ho: There is no significant impact of the job elements on Instructors’ professional satisfaction.
Ho: There is no significant impact of demographic variables on the level of professional satisfaction.


 METHODOLOGY

The study followed a quantitative approach to achieve the objectives of this study, which was descriptive in nature. There were six demographic variables such as age, gender, marital status, employment status, educational qualifications and faculties. Thirty two independent variables and one dependent variable ‘Professional Satisfaction’ were taken for investigation. Simple random sampling technique was used to collect the data. Both primary and secondary data have been collected for the purpose of the study. Five point Likert scale (0.01 to 1.00=Very Dissatisfied, 1.01 to 2.00 = Dissatisfied, 2.01 to 3.00 = Moderately Satisfied, 3.01 to 4.00 = Satisfied, 4.01 to 5.00 = Very Satisfied) had been used in the survey. A total of 205 respondents were taken from four category Instructors of Rajshahi University. In determining sample size Yamane (1967: P. 886) simplified formula was applied.
 
 
Where n is the sample size, N is the population size (1157 Instructors), and e is the level of precision (± 6%). The minimum sample size stood at:
 
 
A total of 224 structured questionnaires were distributed among 224 Rajshahi university Instructors. Out of 224, 205 complete questionnaires were received. All types of data were processed through computer based Statistical Product and Service Solutions, an IBM software (Hejase and Hejase, 2013, P 58). Before feeding the data into a computer, all data were converted into numerical codes and the details of these coding were recorded in a code book. The descriptive statistics was based on frequency percentage, mean, standard deviation, crosstab analysis, correlation analysis and regression analysis.


 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Analysis and interpretation of data
 
It is seen from Table 1 that the Cronbach’s alpha value (α) was found 0.825 from 32 independent variables and 01 dependent variable, which was higher than the minimum acceptable level 0.70 suggested by Nunnally (1978). Though, according to Hejase and Hejase (2013, P 570), “the generally agreed upon lower limit for Cronbach’s alpha is 0.70, although it may decrease to 0.60 in exploratory research.”
 
Demographics analysis
 
78.5% (161 out of 205) were male and 21.5% (44 out of 205) were female. Also, 38.0% of the instructors belong to age group of 31 to 40 years, 28.8% instructors belong to the age group of 41 to 50 years. It is also observed that a moderate number, 14.1%, of instructors are with age of 51 to 60 years. The youngest instructors in the age group ’25 to 30’ years constituted 14.6%. Further, 92.2 % (189 out of 205) are married, 16 or  7.8%  (16  out of 205) of the respondents are unmarried. In terms of employment status, 33.2% (68) of the instructors were in the rank of Professor, 22.9% (47) of the instructors were Associate Professor, 23.4% (48) instructors were Assistant Professor and 20.5% (42) instructors were Lecturers. Moreover, 51.7%, (106) obtained PhD degree, 40.5% (83) obtained Master’s Degree and above and 7.8% (16) earned MS/MPhil degree. Finally, 10.7% (22 out of 205) of the instructors belong to Arts Faculty, 30 or 14.6% of the instructors were in Business Studies Faculty, 43 or 21.0% of the instructors were in Science Faculty, 30 or 14.1% of the instructors were in Social Science Faculty, 6 or 2.9 % of the instructors were from Engineering Faculty, 62 or 30.2% of the instructors were from Life and Earth Science Faculty, 7 or 3.4% were from the Faculty of Agriculture, and 6 or 2.9% of the instructors represented the Law Faculty.
 
Table 2 provides information about general satisfaction level of Instructors. Results shows that 70.7% of respondents (145) were satisfied, 48 or 23.4% respondents were moderately satisfied and only 12 or 5.9% respondents were found to be very satisfied.
 
Table 3 reports the mean and standard deviation of the selected variables results show that among the group variables; ‘Nature of the Job’ has the highest mean value 4.39. It was followed by Job Security with mean value 3.84 and Promotion Policy with mean value 3.72 Autonomy in Job scored the lowest mean value 3.44. Mean value of salary and other financial benefit and working environment were 3.63 and 3.53, respectively.
 
Table 4 presents the correlations of demographic variables and dependent variables (Professional Satisfaction). The relationship is significant at P = 0.01 and P = 0.05 (2 tailed). Gender, age, marital status and faculty showed positive relation with professional satisfaction. Employment status and highest degree showed the negative relation with professional satisfaction.
 
 
 
 
Tables 5 to 7 represent the regression analysis. The analysis shows that the R Square value is 0.721. It indicates that a good proportion of variation (72.10%) exists between the dependent variable (Instructors’ job satisfaction) is explained by the total variation of the valid independent variables. From all the independent variables significant values of only three variables, (like; 1. Study leave is treated as active service; 2. I can freely express ideas and views and; 3. PF and Pension policy of RU is satisfactory) are less than the P value 0.05. It indicates that the Instructors think these three things are very important for their job satisfaction.
 
 
 
Major findings of the study
 
The main findings of the study conducted on" Professional Satisfaction of Public University Instructors in Bangladesh: A Case of Rajshahi University is summarized as follows:
 
The overall level of professional satisfaction Instructors revealed that (70.73%) (145 out  of  205)  were   satisfied; 23.41% (48) were moderately satisfied and only 15.83% (12) Instructors were found to be very satisfied (Table 2).
 
Out of six group variables ‘Nature of Job’ earned the highest mean score 4.39. It was succeeded by ‘Job Security’ ‘Promotion Policy’ ‘Salary and other Financial Benefits’ with mean scores of 3.84, 3.72 and 3.63, respectively. ‘Autonomy in Job’ received minimum mean score 3.44 which was preceded by ‘Working Environment’ with mean score 3.53. Mean scores are indicatives of degree of satisfaction of Instructors regarding group job facets. According to mean scores Instructors were very satisfied with ‘Nature of job satisfied with ‘Job security’ ‘Promotion Policy’ ‘Salary and other Financial Benefits’ ‘Autonomy in Job’ and ‘Working Environment’ (Table 3).
 
Gender, age, marital status and faculty showed positive relation with professional satisfaction. Employment status and highest degree showed negative relation with professional satisfaction (Table 4).
 
Consideration of study leave as active service, freedom of expressing ideas and views, provident fund and pension policy gained more weights as facets of professional satisfaction (Table 5). Business, Science

and law faculty Instructors are comparatively more satisfied than other faculty Instructors.


 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Employers, policy makers and academicians have been showing great concern about job satisfaction with the thought that satisfied employees can be more productive and can have significant contribution to organizational success. From this study it can be argued that if Instructors are  well  satisfied,  they  will  be  encouraged, assured and will have positive feelings towards their job and this would result in job satisfaction. According to Kumar and Hossain (2017) extrinsic and intrinsic motivational factors have a positive influence on instructors’ motivation. The instructors think that extrinsic factors have a greater effect than the intrinsic factors in their job, and they also think job advancement, job security, bonus and other financial facilities, and promotion facilities are the most important factors for their motivation. The findings imply that most of the Instructors are satisfied about their job. Instructors are putting more importance  on  consideration  of  study leave   as   active service, freedom of expressing own ideas, and provident fund and pension policy. Therefore, the authority should address issues relating to common interest of Instructors to enhance teacher’s job satisfaction. Based on the findings of the study, it can be concluded that public university Instructors in Bangladesh are satisfied about their job. This research can be good guidelines for human resource management practices in the education sector in Bangladesh. Some specific recommendations from the researcher’s observation are given as follows:
 
1. Students’ evaluation system may be introduced so that performance of Instructors can be judged by the main stakeholder of the university.
2. Equitable distribution of physical facilities among Instructors and departments.
3. Financial support, in the form of scholarship should be provided to young Instructors so that they can pursue higher degree.
4. Special recognition for extraordinary performance in research and teaching.
5. Promotion policy may be re-designed to induce teacher for better research and teaching.


 CONFLICT OF INTERESTS

The authors have not declared any conflict of interests.

 



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