African Journal of
Business Management

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Bus. Manage.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1993-8233
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJBM
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 4137

Full Length Research Paper

Developing an instrument to assess work-family pressures and resources needed by women managers in South Africa

Leopold Petrus Vermeulen
  • Leopold Petrus Vermeulen
  • Department of Human Resource Management, University of Pretoria, South Africa.
  • Google Scholar
Olubukunola Akinnusi Sonubi
  • Olubukunola Akinnusi Sonubi
  • Department of Human Resource Management, College of Technology, Swaziland.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 07 March 2014
  •  Accepted: 20 February 2015
  •  Published: 28 February 2015

References

Allen D, Herst DE, Bruck CS, Sutton M (2000). Consequences associated with work-to-family conflict: A review and agenda for future research. J. Occup. Health Psychol. 5:278-308.
Crossref

 

Allen TD (2001). Family-supportive work environments: The role of organizational perceptions. J. Vocat. Behav. 58:414-435.
Crossref

 

Bakker AB, Demerouti E, Euwema MC (2005). Job resources buffer the impact of job demands on burnout. J. Occup. Health Psychol. 10(2):170-180.
Crossref

 

Bakker AB, Geurts SAE (2004). Towards a dual-process of work-home interference. Work Occupation. 3:345-366. http//dx.doi.org/10.1177/0730888404266349

 

Barling J, Kelloway EK, Frone M (Eds.) (2005). Handbook of Work Stress. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

 

Baxter J, Alexander M (2008). Mothers' work-to-family strain in single and couple parent families: The role of job characteristics and supports. (Report) Aust. J. Soc. Issues. 43(2):195-214.

 

Brink B, De la Rey C (2001). Work-family interaction strain: Coping strategies used by successful women in the public, corporate and self-employed sectors of the economy. S. Afr. J. Psychol. 31(4):55-61.

 

Casale D (2004). What has the feminisation of the labour market "bought" women in South Africa? Trends in labour force participation, employment and earnings, 1995-2001. J. Interdisc Econom.15:251-275.

 

Clark LA, Watson D (1995). Constructing validity: Basic issues in objective scale development. Psychol. Assessment. 7(3):309-319.
Crossref

 

Coetzer L (2006). Work-home Interaction of South African Females. Master's dissertation. Potchefstroom: North-West University.

 

Comrey AL, Lee HB (1992). A First Course in Factor Analysis. (2nd edn.). Hillside, NJ; Lawrence Erlbaum.

 

De Klerk M, Nel JA, Hill C, Koekemoer E (2013). The development of the MACE work-family enrichment instrument. SA J. Ind. Psychol.39(2). http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/ sajip.v39i2.1147

 

DeVellis RF (2003). Scale Development: Theory and Applications. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

 

Eaton SC (2003). If you can use them: Flexibility policies, organizational commitment, and perceived performance. Ind Relat.: J. of Econo. and Soc. 42(2):145-167.
Crossref

 

Field A (2005). Discovering Statistics Using SPSS. (2nd edn). London: Sage.

 

Franks K, Schurink W, Fourie L (2006). Exploring the social construction of life roles of career-oriented women. SA J. Ind. Psychol. 32(1):17-24. http//dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v32i1.222

 

Frone MR (2003).Work-family balance. In: J.C. Quick and L.E. Tetrick (Eds.). The Handbook of Occupational Health Psychology (pp.143–162). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Crossref

 

Galinsky E, Bond JT, Friedman DE (1993). The Changing Workforce: Highlights of the National Study. New York: Families and Work Institute.

 

Garson GD (2008). An Online Textbook. PA765. Retrieved from http://faculty.chass.ncsu.edu/garson/PA765/statnote.htm. 26/02/2009.

 

Geurts SAE, Demerouti, E (2003). Work/non-work interface: A review of theories and findings. In: M.J. Schabracq, J.A.M. Winnubst and L. Cooper (Eds.). The Handbook of Work and Health Psychology (pp. 279-312). Chichester, UK: John Wiley.

 

Geurts SA, Kompier MA, Roxburgh S, Houtman, ILD (2003). Does work-home interference mediate the relationship between workload and well-being? J. Vocat. Behav. 63:532-559.
Crossref

 

Greenhaus JH, Beutell, NJ (1985). Sources of conflict between work and family roles. Acad. Manage. Rev. 10(1):76-88.
Crossref

 

Greenhaus JH, Parasuraman S (2002). The allocation of time to work and family roles. In: D.L. Nelson and R.J. Burke (Eds.). Gender, Work Stress and Health (pp. 115-128). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Crossref

 

Gregory RJ (2004). Psychological Testing: History, Principles, and Applications. (4th edn.) Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

 

Guba EG, Lincoln YS (1994). Competing paradigms in qualitative research. In: N.K. Denzin and Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.). Handbook of Qualitative Research (pp. 105-117). London: Sage .

 

Hayton JC, Allen DG, Scarpello V (2004). Factor retention decisions in exploratory factor analysis: A tutorial on parallel analysis. Organ. Res. Meth. 7(2):191-205.
Crossref

 

Henson RK, Roberts JK (2006). Use of exploratory factor analysis in published research: Common errors and some comments on improved practice. Educ. Psychol. Meas. 66:393-416. http://dx.doi. org/10.1177/0013164405282485
Crossref

 

Hobfoll, SE (1989). Conservation of resources: A new approach at conceptualizing stress. Am. Psychol. 44(3):513-524.
Crossref

 

Horn JL (1965). A rationale and test for the number of factors in factor analysis. Psychometrika, 30(2):179-185.
Crossref

 

Jaga A, Bagraim J, Williams Z (2013). Work-family enrichment and psychological health. SA J. Ind. Psychol. 39(2). http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/ sajip.v39i2.1143

 

Kelly E L, Moen P, Tranby E (2011). Changing workplaces to reduce work-family conflict: Schedule control in a white-collar organization. Am. Sociol. Rev. 76(2):265-290. http//dx.doi.org/10.1177/0003122411400056
Crossref

 

Koekemoer FE, Mostert K (2006). Job characteristics, burnout and negative work-home interference in a nursing environment. SA J. Ind. Psychol. 32(3):87-97. http//dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v32i3.441

 

Kossek EE, Pichler S, Hammer LB (2011). Workplace social support and work-family conflict: A meta-analysis clarifying the influence of general and work-family-specific supervisor and organizational support. Pers. Psychol. 64:289-313.
Crossref

 

Lawshe CH (1975). A quantitative approach to content validity. Pers. Psychol. 28:563-575.
Crossref

 

Leech NL, Onwuegbuzie AJ (2009). A typology of mixed methods research designs. Qual. Quant. 43:265-275. http//dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11135-007-9105-3
Crossref

 

Llorens S, Salanova M, Schaufeli WB, Bakker AB (2007). Does a positive gain spiral of resources, efficacy beliefs and engagement exist? Comput. Hum. Behav. 23:825-841.
Crossref

 

Mathew RV, Panchanatham N (2011). An exploratory study on the work-life balance of women entrepreneurs in South India. Asian Aca. Bus. Manag. 16(2):77-105.

 

Mclellan K, Uys K (2009). Balancing dual roles in self-employed women: An exploratory study. SA J. Ind. Psychol. 35(1). http//dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v35i1.416

 

Meijman F, Mulder G (1998). Psychological aspects of workload. In: P.J. Drenth, H. Thierry and C.J. de Wolff (Eds.). Handbook of Work and Organizational Psychology (pp. 5-33). Hove, UK: Psychology Press.

 

Morgan AG, Griego OV (1998). Easy Use and Interpretation of SPSS for Windows: Answering Research Questions with Statistics. London: Lawrence Erlbaum.

 

Mostert K (2009). The balance between work and home: The relationship between work and home demands and ill health of employed females. SA J. Ind. Psychol. 35(1). http//dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v35i1.743

 

Nunnally JC, Bernstein IH (1994). Psychometric Theory. (3rd edn.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

 

Oldfield GR, Mostert K (2007). Job characteristics, ill health and negative work-home interference in the mining industry. SA J. Ind. Psychol. 33(2):68-75. http//dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v33i2.379

 

Onwuegbuzie AJ, Collins KMT (2005). A typology of mixed methods sampling designs in Social Science research. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southwest Educational Research Association 9-12 February 2005, New Orleans, LA.

 

Schaufeli WB, Bakker AB (2004). Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnout and engagement: A multi-sample study. J. Organ. Behav. 25:293-315.
Crossref

 

Schaufeli WB, Salanova M (2007). Work engagement: An emerging psychological concept and its implications for organizations. In: S.W. Gilliland, D.D. Steiner, and D.P. Skarlicki (Eds.). Research in Social Issues in Management. Vol. 5: Managing Social and Ethical Issues in Organizations. Greenwich, CT: Information Age.

 

Sheehan K (2001). E-mail survey response rates: A review. J Comput-Mediat. Comm. 6(2):1-19.

View

 

Statistics South Africa (2014). Statistical release Po211. Quarterly Labour Survey, Quarter 4, 2013.

View

 

Tabachnick BG, Fidell, LS (2007). Using Multivariate Statistics. (5th edn.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

 

Treiblmaier H, Filzmoser P (2009). Exploratory factor analysis revisited: How robust methods support the detection of hidden multivariate data structures in IS research. Research report SM-2009-5. Vienna: Institut f. Statistik u. Wahrscheinlichkeitstheorie. http://www.statistik.tuwien.ac.a Valcour M (2007). Work-based resources as moderators of the relationship between hours and satisfaction with work-family balance. J. Appl. Psychol. 92(6):1512-1523.

 

Van Aarde A, Mostert K (2008). Work-home interaction of working females: What is the role of job and home characteristics? SA J Ind. Psychol. 34(3):1-10. http//dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v34i3.383

 

Van den Berg HS, Van Zyl ES (2008). A cross-cultural comparison of the stress experienced by high-level career women. SA J Ind. Psychol. 34(3):17-21. http//dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v34i3.726

 

Van der Westhuizen C, Goga S, Oosthuizen M (2006). Women in the South African labour market: 1995-2005. South African Department of Labour, Development Policy Research Unit. Retrieved from http://www.labour.gov.za. 15/09/2010

 

Voydanoff P (2005). Toward a conceptualization of perceived work¬-family fit and balance: A demands and resources approach. J. Marriage. Fam. 67:822-830.
Crossref

 

Voydanoff P, Donnelly BW (1989). Work and family roles and psychological distress. J. Marriage Fam. 51:923-932.
Crossref

 

Wei C, Yili L, Tian Y (2013). How can HRM help organizations build the supportive "work-life/family" balance culture? Int. J. Bus. Soc. Sci. 4(9):104-110.

 

Whitehead T, Kotze M (2003). Career and life-balance of professional women: A South African study. SA J HR Manag.1(3):77-84. http//dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v1i3.19

 

Wood SJ, De Menezes LM, Lasaosa A. (2003). Family-friendly management in Great Britain: Testing various perspectives. Ind. Relat.: J. Econ. Soc. 42(2):221-250.
Crossref

 

Wortman C, Biernat M, Lang E (1991). Coping with role overload. In M. Frankhaeuser, U. Lunberg, and M. Chesnewy (Eds.), Women, Work and Health: Stress and Opportunities (pp. 85-110). New York: Plenum.
Crossref