African Journal of
Biochemistry Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biochem. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0778
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJBR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 414

Full Length Research Paper

Angiotensin-converting enzyme genotypes relationship with blood pressure, C-reactive protein and selected physical tests in Zulu South African cricketers

Trayana Djarova1*, Abigail Ramakoaba1, Albert Basson1, Sam Mugandani2, Jeanne Grace2, Jacque Cloete3 and Gregory Watson4
1Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa 3886, South Africa. 2Department of Biokinetics and Sport Science, University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa 3886, South Africa. 3Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa 3886, South Africa. 4School of Biochemistry, Genetics and Microbiology, University of KwaZulu Natal, Scottsville 3209, South Africa.
Email: [email protected], [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 27 May 2011
  •  Published: 31 July 2011


Zulu cricketers (n=14) and students (n=17) as controls were genotyped (blood spots) for angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), gene by PCR amplification followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) and grip strength (kg), knee extension and flexion (Nm/kg) were measured, systolic tension time (STT) and metabolic rates (MR) were calculated. After ANOVA, the association between these parameters and I/D gene polymorphism was probed using Chi2 maximum likelihood test and Fisher’s exact test. ACE genotyping for the whole group displayed a complete absence of II genotype, 67.7% DD and 32.3% ID genotypes. The frequency of D allele was 83.8% and I allele 16.2%. In cricketers DD and ID genotypes were 50% each compared to controls-83% DD and 17% ID. No differences in grip strength and  quadriceps/hamstring muscle strength between the groups were observed, but for the whole cohort 86% D allele frequency was associated with higher (greater than 43.3 kg) grip strength (p<0.037). In cricketers CRP (less than 3.0 mmol/l) was associated with 79% D allele frequency. SBP and DBP were significantly lower by 3.2 and 4.25 mmHg, whereas increased values of STT by 5.5%, and MR by 10.3% were found. Although, the number of participants in this study is small, it is concluded that in cricketers no over presentation of DD or ID genotypes was observed indicating a more balanced display of power and endurance required for the game.


Key words: Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) genotype, polymorphism, blood pressure,body mass index (BMI), lean body mass (LBM), Fat mass, hand grip, quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength, Zulu cricketers.