African Journal of
Biochemistry Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biochem. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0778
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJBR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 397

Full Length Research Paper

Evaluation of the effects of Azadirachta indica leaf on haematology, lipid profile, body weight and organ-system functions of streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats

Ezeigwe Obiajulu Christian
  • Ezeigwe Obiajulu Christian
  • Department of Applied Biochemistry, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.
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Okani Chukwudi Onyeaghana
  • Okani Chukwudi Onyeaghana
  • Department of Histopathology, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University (Formerly: Anambra State University), Awka Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria.
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Nnadi Naomi Ngozi
  • Nnadi Naomi Ngozi
  • Department of Applied Biochemistry, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.
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Obiukwu Onyinye Olivia
  • Obiukwu Onyinye Olivia
  • Department of Medicine and Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria.
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Ekwunoh Peter Okwukwe
  • Ekwunoh Peter Okwukwe
  • Department of Biochemistry, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Uli, Anambra State, Nigeria.
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Obayuwana Erhunmwense Ann
  • Obayuwana Erhunmwense Ann
  • Department of Applied Biochemistry, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.
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Okibedi Frances Uchenna
  • Okibedi Frances Uchenna
  • Department of Applied Biochemistry, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.
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Obi Chioma Henrietta
  • Obi Chioma Henrietta
  • Department of Applied Biochemistry, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.
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  •  Received: 11 May 2020
  •  Accepted: 01 July 2020
  •  Published: 31 July 2020

Abstract

This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of ethanol extract of Azadirachta indica leaf on haematological parameters, lipid profile, body weight, organ weight and histopathological functions of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg bw.). The haematological parameters, lipid profile and histopathological investigations were performed using standard methods. Continuous administration of ethanol extract of A. indica leaf for a period of four weeks significantly (p<0.05) increased the bodyweight of the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats compared with the diabetic-untreated control. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase in the haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, red blood cells, platelet count and a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the total serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides and very-low-density lipoprotein of the groups treated with ethanol extract of A. indica compared with the diabetic-untreated control. The result of the histopathological studies showed regeneration of the organs for the groups treated with 400 mg/kg bw of the extract compared with the diabetic-untreated control. These results suggest that the ethanol extract of A. indica can be considered as an excellent remedy for diabetes and an alternative to antidiabetic drugs in reducing the complications associated with type II diabetes mellitus.

 

Key words: Diabetes, Azadirachta indica, haematological parameters, Lipid profile, Bodyweight, Histopathological functions.