### African Journal ofEnvironmental Science and Technology

• Abbreviation: Afr. J. Environ. Sci. Technol.
• Language: English
• ISSN: 1996-0786
• DOI: 10.5897/AJEST
• Start Year: 2007
• Published Articles: 1068

## Determination of the optimum tilt angle for photovoltaic modules in Senegal

##### Adama Sarr
• Adama Sarr
• Laboratoire Eau, Energie, Environnement et Procédés Industriels (LE3PI), Ecole Supérieure Polytechnique (ESP), Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, Senegal.
• Google Scholar
##### Cheikh M. F. Kebe
• Cheikh M. F. Kebe
• Laboratoire Eau, Energie, Environnement et Procédés Industriels (LE3PI), Ecole Supérieure Polytechnique (ESP), Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, Senegal.
• Google Scholar
##### Ababacar Ndiaye
• Ababacar Ndiaye
• Laboratoire Eau, Energie, Environnement et Procédés Industriels (LE3PI), Ecole Supérieure Polytechnique (ESP), Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, Senegal.
• Google Scholar

•  Received: 01 February 2021
•  Accepted: 21 May 2021
•  Published: 30 June 2021

Abstract

This paper deals with finding the optimum tilt angle of solar panels for solar energy applications. The objective is to maximize the output electrical energy of the photovoltaic (PV) modules. A mathematical model was used to determine the optimum tilt angle of solar collectors in Senegal on a daily and monthly basis, as well as for a specific period. Then, the configuration of the optimum tilt angle was analyzed by studying four specific cases in different typical climatic zones in Senegal. On a horizontal plane, the sun spends more time in the south than in the north. This means that in Senegal, the optimum tilt angle is often set equal to latitude. On the other hand, the optimum latitude angle is only for annual optimization. This study shows that the optimum tilt angle equal to latitude does not produce maximum output. For monthly optimum tilt angle, only the month of November gives tilt optimum angles equal to latitude. It is preferable to change the tilt angle of solar conversion systems monthly instead of fixing them, to gain more energy.

Keys words: Solar energy, solar panels, tilt angle, orientation solar panel, latitude, geometry.