African Journal of
Environmental Science and Technology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Environ. Sci. Technol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0786
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJEST
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 1055

Full Length Research Paper

An appraisal of the of eco-climatic characteristics in Northern Nigeria

AbdulKadir A.1*, Usman M. T.1, Shaba A. H.2 and Saidu S.1
  1Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology, PMB 65, Minna, Bosso Campus 920003, Niger State, Nigeria. 2Strategic Space Applications, National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA), P.M.B. 437, Garki, Abuja, Nigeria.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 01 August 2013
  •  Published: 31 August 2013



      The character of the sub-regional eco-climatic zones has possibly changed as suggested in the dwindling fortune of agricultural productivity, documented changes in vegetation and freshwater resources and rising poverty levels especially in the hitherto productive Northern Nigeria. To determine and map the changes, if any, in these eco-climatic characteristics is therefore important for general planning. This study is using rainfall and temperature data (1950-2006) to determine factors of rainfall effectiveness; onset dates, cessation dates, hydrologic growing season (HGS), monsoon quality index (MQI) and aridity index (AI); summarizing and ranking them using numerical identifiers for the interpretation of the various moisture situations, to assess the eco-climatic characteristics in the northern Nigeria. A multi-temporal database has been developed for the factors and classes have been defined using quantitative definitions for the time series. The point data have been transformed to spatial data and subjected to geospatial analysis. The results so far reveal variability in the effects of each factor on eco-climatic zonation and it is anticipated that integrating these derived climatic parameters and remotely sensed (vegetation dynamics) data using GIS techniques, is crucial for water management and attainment of food security.


Key words: Eco-climatic, moisture effectiveness, surface, principal component analysis, environmental quality


AI, Aridity Index; C, cessation; FAO, Food and Agricultural Organization; FCT, Federal Capital Territory; GIS, geographic information system; HGS, hydrologic growing season; MEC, moisture effectiveness classes; MEM, moisture effectiveness map; MEZ, moisture effectiveness zones; MQI, monsoon quality index; NIMET, Nigeria Meteorological Agency; Ø, onset; PCA, principal component analysis