African Journal of
Environmental Science and Technology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Environ. Sci. Technol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0786
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJEST
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 1037

Full Length Research Paper

Behavior of major ions and heavy metals risk assessment in spring and surface water on the southwest slope of Mount Cameroon (Western Africa)

Gustave Raoul Nkoue Ndondo
  • Gustave Raoul Nkoue Ndondo
  • Departement of Geosciences, Faculty of Science, University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon.
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Gloria Eneke Takem Eyong
  • Gloria Eneke Takem Eyong
  • Hydrological Research Centre, Institute of Geological and Mining Research, Yaounde, Cameroon.
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Josephine Ndjama
  • Josephine Ndjama
  • Hydrological Research Centre, Institute of Geological and Mining Research, Yaounde, Cameroon.
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David Eric Komba
  • David Eric Komba
  • Departement of Geosciences, Faculty of Science, University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon.
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Suzanne Ngo Boum
  • Suzanne Ngo Boum
  • Departement of Geosciences, Faculty of Science, University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon.
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Bertil Nlend
  • Bertil Nlend
  • Departement of Geosciences, Faculty of Science, University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon.
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Pascale Mouto Makongo
  • Pascale Mouto Makongo
  • Departement of Geosciences, Faculty of Science, University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon.
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Zachari Mfonka
  • Zachari Mfonka
  • Departement of Geosciences, Faculty of Science, University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon.
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Marie-Joseph Ntamak Nida
  • Marie-Joseph Ntamak Nida
  • Departement of Geosciences, Faculty of Science, University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon.
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Jacques Etame
  • Jacques Etame
  • Departement of Geosciences, Faculty of Science, University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon.
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  •  Received: 16 June 2021
  •  Accepted: 28 July 2021
  •  Published: 31 August 2021

Abstract

The coastal flanks of Mt Etinde is wedged between the sea and the southwestern slope of Mt Cameroon. The only fresh water resources available for multipurpose uses in this area are mountain springs and streams that drain volcanic materials. To access the sources, processes and assess the ecological risk associated with hydrochemicals and heavy metals in these mountain water resources, 18 water samples were collected in different seasons at 4 locations between may 2009 and december 2010 for major ions and heavy metals determination. The sampled waters ranged from neutral to slithly alkaline, weakly mineralized and dominated by Ca–Mg–HCO3 water type irrespective of season. The hydrochemical ratios revealed ions chemistry mostly influenced by geogenic source of silicate rock weathering and atmospheric inputs. Sampled waters had low concentration of heavy metals which are less mobile in the aqueous phase, controlled by hydraulic condition. Geochemical processes of  mineral dissolution and reverse ion exchange coupled with hydrodynamic processes of flushing at the weathering front and soil leaching are the main controls on the water chemistry in the area. Despite agricultural and other anthropogenic activities, quality indices in the study area indicate the absence of anthropogenic inputs.

 

Key words: Major ions, heavy metals, rocks weathering, soil leaching, water quality assessment.