The increase in the use of fossil fuels to meet the energy needs by the industries has led to pollution and tensions in the environment. By entering to water, oil, and weather ecosystems, pollution from the use of Petroleum Hydrocarbons (PHC) has led to irreparable damage to the health of humans, living organisms and the environment. Thus, the reduction of pollutants from the entry of these compounds into the environment is necessary.
Among the affected ecosystems, soil ecosystem has well been examined and the need to reduce the contamination in the soil has been emphasized in recent years given being a ground for the growth of microorganisms and the range of living organisms, the high potential of hydrocarbon penetration from soil to groundwater and subsequent pollution of this valuable source. In recent decades, because of the growth and expansion of the use of hydrocarbon compounds as a source of energy, several studies have been done to reduce soil contamination by removing biological pollutants from soil using in situ microbiology technology. One of the main reasons for the significant use of biological removal of contaminants using microorganisms are important features like high removal efficiency, being cost-effective and being less harmful way for the environment around the contaminated area.
The purpose of the study was to review the past studies and compare the methods of biological removal of the pollutants to be able to use hydrocarbon organic compounds in the future to recover contaminated soils.
Keywords: Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination, in situ, Bioremidation, Soil Function