African Journal of
Food Science

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Food Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0794
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJFS
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 816

Full Length Research Paper

Vitamin A stability in Nigerian wheat flour and fortification compliance level

Florence Ngozi Uchendu
  • Florence Ngozi Uchendu
  • School of Health Sciences, National Open University of Nigeria, 14/16 Ahmadu Bello Way, Victoria Island, Lagos, Nigeria
  • Google Scholar
Tola Atinmo
  • Tola Atinmo
  • Department of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Public Health, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 19 October 2015
  •  Accepted: 04 March 2016
  •  Published: 31 March 2016


Stability and compliance level of fortified Nigerian retailed flour has not been determined. The aim of study therefore was to evaluate vitamin A stability in retailed flour and assess compliance status. Seventeen wheat flour samples were randomly selected from 12 bakeries across six Local Government Areas in Lagos, Nigeria. Pre- and post-storage retinol analyses of retailed flour stored for 30 days were carried out using high performance liquid chromatography. Stability results for flour were grouped under 1, 2, and 3 months conditions. Fortification compliance was calculated based on three assumptions, using Nigerian Industrial Standards (NIS) (≥30.0 IU/g). WHO guidelines (Feasible Fortification Level/Range (FFL)) of approximately 25 % loss (22.5 -30.0 IU/g) and 50 % acceptable compliance range (ACR) for vitamin A (15.0-30.0 IU/g). Sample stability and compliance were calculated in percentages. Data were analysed using T-test and ANOVA at p<.05. Mean vitamin A (retinol) contents of flour were 18,221.3 IU/kg (1 month), 9,181.9 IU/kg (2 months) and 6,432.7 IU/kg (3 months). Pre- and post-storage vitamin A stabilities in flour at 1, 2, and 3 months were 60.7, 30.6, and 21.4%. Only 11.8% of samples met NIS. Pre-storage vitamin A content compliance in flour was 23.5% and non-compliance rate was 76.5%. Post-storage compliance rate decreased to 5.9% while non-compliance rate increased to 94.1%. Significant difference existed between vitamin A content of flour and NIS. Low stability and compliance were observed in flour samples. Revised quality of premix, effective monitoring and enforcement should be ensured.


Key words: Vitamin A, fortification, wheat flour, stability, compliance.