African Journal of
Food Science

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Food Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0794
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJFS
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 964

Full Length Research Paper

Chemical composition, rheological properties and bread making potentials of composite flours from breadfruit, breadnut and wheat

Malomo, S.A., Eleyinmi, A.F. and Fashakin, J.B.
Food Science and Technology Department, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 27 April 2011
  •  Published: 31 July 2011



This study assessed the quality of bread produced from breadfruit and breadnut-wheat composite flour. Matured and freshly harvested breadfruit (Artocarpus integrifolia) and breadnut (Artocarpus atilis) were obtained from local market in Akure. They were thoroughly washed, peeled, washed again, drained, chipped, oven dried, milled, sieved and packaged. Six blends were prepared by homogenously mixing breadfruit and breadnut flours with wheat flour in the percentage proportions: 5:95, 10:90, 15:85 (BF: WF and BFN: WF) and later used to bake bread. Chemical, rheological and physical properties of the composite flour and bread made from the flours were examined. Panelists were assigned to assess the bread samples as well. The results of the proximate composition showed that the protein content of the breadfruit and breadnut flours are 3.35 and 3.62 mg/100 g; fat, 0.51 and 1.85 mg/100 g; ash, 2.69 and 1.24 mg/100 g; fibre, 3.67 and 4.52 mg/100 g; carbohydrate, 73.50 and 62.17 mg/100 g respectively and the protein content of the bread samples ranged from 10.66 to 11.96 mg/100 g; fat, 4.13-5.62 mg/100 g; ash, 1.67-2.10 mg/100 g; moisture 35.51- 39.06 mg/100 g; carbohydrate, 42.22- 46.93 mg/100 g; energy value, 261.40-274.17 Kcal/100 g. The rheological study of composite flour samples had 9.50-10.50 mg/100 g of protein content; water absorption capacity, 62.90-72.30%; dough development time, 1.50-1.75 min; dough stability time, 7.50-12.00 min. Bread samples had sodium, 257.68-885.32 mg/100 g; calcium, 32.05-112.59 mg/100 g; potassium, 92.88-404.49 mg/100 g; iron, 0.32-4.14 mg/100 g. The bread loaf weights ranged from 550 to 600 g; loaf volume, 1229.01- 1886.03 cm3 and specific loaf volume, 2.08-3.39 cm3/g. There is no significant difference in the crust colour, crumb holes, stability, elasticity, firmness, shape regularity and appearance of the samples. No panelist showed a total dislike for the taste of any of the samples. All the qualities evaluated did not significantly (p≤ 0.05) affect the acceptability and preference of the samples. Hence, it was concluded that wheat flour could be substituted with breadfruit and breadnut flour up to 15% level in bread making which will still retain much of the nutritional and sensory properties.


Key words: Breadfruit, breadnut, composite flour.