African Journal of
History and Culture

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Hist. Cult.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-6672
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJHC
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 187

Full Length Research Paper

Reconstruction of the palaeoenviroment of Wadi Farja (Nile, third cataract) from zooarchaeological remains

  Yahia Fadl Tahir    
Department of Archaeology, University of Khartoum, Sudan. 
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 03 February 2011
  •  Published: 28 February 2011



Wadi Farja is a dry Holocene palaeochannel situated in northern Sudan on the eastern bank of the Nile, immediately north of the Third Cataract region. The human occupation of the Wadi peaked in the Neolithic (5000 to 3000 BC) through Kerma (2500 to 1500 BC) periods. The Wadi is relatively rich in bioarchaeological materials, such as mammalian bone fragments, fish bones and bivalve shells. It is concluded that the different classes of remains collected are indicative of the extent of animal palaeobiodiversity and the prevalence of savannah conditions at that time. The Wadi Farja was with a permanent water body, as the nearby Fad seasonal stream existing today.


Key words: Palaeochannel, Farja, Fad, third cataract, holocene, neolithic, Kerma, bioarchaeological, savannah, hippopotamus, CoelaturaEtheria elliptica, Pila ovate, Lates niloticus).