African Journal of
History and Culture

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Hist. Cult.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-6672
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJHC
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 171

Review

Can the centre hold for Arnstein’s ladder of participation in Zimbabwe?

Jephias Mapuva
  • Jephias Mapuva
  • Bindura University of Science Education, P.O. Box 1020, Bindura, Zimbabwe
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 21 August 2013
  •  Accepted: 20 October 2014
  •  Published: 31 December 2014

References

 
Arnstein SR (1969). A ladder of citizen participation. J. Am. Institute Planners 35(4):216–224.
Crossref
 
Cogan S, Hertberg (1986). "Citizen Participation", Chapter 12 in The Practice of State and Regional Planning, edited by So, FrankS. II, Hand, Irving, and McDowell, Bruce D., American Planning Association, pp.283-308.
 
Hyden G, Braton M (1993). Governance and Politics in Africa, Lynne Rienner, Boulder, Colorado, USA.
 
Irvin, R., & Stansbury, J. (2004). Citizen participation in decision making: Is it worth the effort? Public Administration Review, 64(1), 55–65.
Crossref
 
Kamrava M (2000). Political Culture and a New Definition of the Third World, World Q. 16(4).
 
Leach M, Bloom G, Ely A, Nightingale P, Scoones I, Shah E, Smith A (2007). Understanding Governance: pathways to sustainability, STEPS Working Paper 2, Brighton: STEPS Centre, 2007.
 
Mapuva J, Muyengwa-Mapuva L (2012). "A Critique of Legislation Guiding Civil Liberties in Zimbabwe" Potchefstroom Electronic Law J. 14(6):124-164.
 
Martin R, Feldman E (1998). Access to Information in Developing Countries, Transparency International Working Paper, (accessed 27 April 2011 Ministry of Local Government (1985). Urban and Rural Development Report, 1985(MLGRUD/SALA,) p.16.
 
Naidoo K, Doube C (2007). "The Crisis for Civil Society in Zimbabwe", Catholic University of America: New York, J. Civil Soc. Law 5(2)89.
 
Raftopoulos B (2000). NGOs, the State and Politics in Zimbabwe: Baobab Books. Harare p.36.
 
Raftopoulos B, Phimister I (1987). Keep on Knocking: a History of the Labour Movement in Zimbabwe, Baobab Books. Harare.
 
Sachikonye LM (1995). Democracy, Civil Society and the State, Social Movements in Southern Africa. SAPES: Harare.
 
World Bank Country Report (2004). Governance: The World Bank's Experience, World Bank, Washington, DC.