African Journal of
History and Culture

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Hist. Cult.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-6672
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJHC
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 172

Full Length Research Paper

Revisiting history of Gafat: Was emperor Tewodros’s military reform an attempt at “translative adaptation” of western technology?

Fantahun Ayele
  • Fantahun Ayele
  • Department of History, Faculty of Social Science, Bahir Dar University, P. O. Box 79, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 23 August 2016
  •  Accepted: 21 September 2016
  •  Published: 31 October 2016


Abir M (1968). Ethiopia: The Era of the Princes. London: Longmans.


Bahru Z (2002). A History of Modern Ethiopia 1855 - 1991. London: James Currey.


Bahru Z (1998). A Short History of Ethiopia and the Horn. Addis Ababa: Commercial Printing Enterprise.


Blanc H (1970). A Narrative of Captivity in Abyssinia. London: Frank Cass & co. Ltd.


Caulk R (1972). Firearms and Princely Power in Ethiopia in the Nineteenth Century. J. Afr. Hist. 13(4):609-630.


Crummey D (1970). Priests and Politicians: Protestant& Catholic Missions in Orthodox Ethiopia 1830-1868. Oxford: Clarendon Press.


Dufton H (1867). Narrative of Journey through Abyssinia. Westport: Negro University Press.


Girma SA, Appleyard D (1979). The Amharic Letters of Emperor Theodore of Ethiopia (1855-1868). University of London: School of Oriental and African Studies.


Marcus H (1994). A History of Ethiopia. Los Angeles: University of California press.


Myatt F (1970). The March to Maqdala: The Abyssinian War of 1868. London: Leo Cooper.


Ohno K (2006). The Economic Development of Japan: The Path Traveled by Japan as a Developing Country. Tokyo: GRIPS Development Forum.


Pankhurst R (1990) Tewodros as an Innovator. In: " Kassa & Kassa: Papers on the Lives, Times and Images of Tewodros II & Yohannes IV (1855 - 1889). Addis Ababa: University Press, pp. 127-144.


Pankhurst R (1990). The Maqdala Library of Emperor Tewodros. In: Kassa & Kassa: Papers on the Lives, Times and Images of Tewodros II & Yohannes IV (1855 - 1889). Addis Ababa: Addis Ababa University Press, pp. 223-230.


Rubenson S (1966). King of Kings Tewodros of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa: Haile Silassie I University.


Rubenson S (1976). The Survival of Ethiopian Independence. London: Heinemann.