African Journal of
Medical and Health Sciences

OFFICIAL PUBLICATION OF THE FEDERAL TEACHING HOSPITAL, ABAKALIKI, NIGERIA
  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Med. Health Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2384-5589
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJMHS
  • Start Year: 2017
  • Published Articles: 54

Full Length Research Paper

Factors affecting the vaccination status of under five children in Nasarawa State, Nigeria

Sarajudeen Bello
  • Sarajudeen Bello
  • Department of Paediatrics, Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital, Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria.
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Ikrama Hassan
  • Ikrama Hassan
  • Department of Paediatrics, Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital, Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria.
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Taofik Ogunkunle
  • Taofik Ogunkunle
  • Department of Paediatrics, Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital, Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria.
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Olayinka Ibrahim
  • Olayinka Ibrahim
  • Department of Paediatrics, Federal Medical Centre, Katsina State, Nigeria.
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Abdulmumeen Lawal
  • Abdulmumeen Lawal
  • Department of Anatomy, Federal University Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria.
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Yahaya Issah
  • Yahaya Issah
  • Department of Family Medicine, Comprensive Primary Health Care, Kwandare, Lafia Nasarawa State, Nigeria.
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  •  Received: 07 March 2021
  •  Accepted: 22 June 2021
  •  Published: 31 August 2021

Abstract

Immunization is the most cost effective of public health intervention geared towards reducing childhood morbidity and mortality. There has been a global increase in the rate of immunization coverage with its attendant decline in vaccine preventable deaths. The immunization coverage in developing countries like Nigeria has however been challenging due to some reasons. Therefore, this study determined the immunization status and the factors affecting the vaccination status of under five children in Nasarawa State. Cross sectional descriptive studies of under five children in Nasarawa State using a multi staged sampling technique. Interviewer administered questionnaire was used for the recruited participants across the three senatorial zones of the state. Data collection was done using both the immunization cards and oral interview of care-givers. Data analysis was withanalyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Univariates, bivariates and multivariates analyses were done with significant value set at p < 0.05. A total of 55,036 of the target population of 74,775 (4% of the total population of Nasarawa State) received (Baccille, Calmette and Guerin BCG) vaccine in the state in the year 2018, giving a 73.6% immunization coverage for Nasarawa State in the year 2018. Immunization drop - out rate for pentavalent vaccine was 31.6%.  The location of Primary Healthcare Centre, antenatal care attendance, distance to healthcare centre and numbers of children in a household are strong determinants of the immunization status across Nasarawa State. There is high immunization coverage in the present study. Incomplete immunization is influenced by Ignorance, mother’s travelling, fathers’ refusal, child’s small stature and or illness as well as distance to the health facilities.

Key words: Coverage, determinants, immunization, status, under five.