Increasing bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents has become an issue of concern. A major problem of the treatment of infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae using antibiotics is the emergence of Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae. This study aims to determine the prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, and describe their resistance profile to other antibiotics commonly used in the infections treatment. 486 clinical strains of Enterobacteriaceae were obtained from patients attending three health centers in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) from November 2014 to October 2015. Biochemical identification was performed and antibiotics susceptibility test was performed using the disk diffusion method. Data was analyzed with the Excel and ANOVA one-way software GraphPad Prism version 5.01 software. Results revealed occurrence of Escherichia coli (60.9%, 194) predominated followed by Klebsiella spp. (22.4%, 109). Antibiotics susceptibility test revealed that 86.8% strains were resistant to amoxicillin, 81.3% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 61.9% to ceftriaxone, 58.6% to cefotaxime and 58.4% to cefepime. It was observed that 99.8% were susceptible to imipenem while 16.6% were resistant to fosfomycin and 12.3% to amikacin. However, 38.5% (187/486) of the strains were ESBL-producing, 67.9% (127/187) of which came from Yalgado Ouedraogo University Hospital Center, 23.5% (44/187) from Charles De Gaulle Paediatric University Hospital Center and 8.6% (16/187) from Saint Camille Hospital. This study thus showed a high prevalence of Extended-Spectrum Β-Lactamases producing Enterobacteriaceae strains in Ouagadougou (38.5%). It underlined the need for routine detection and systematic reporting of ESBL strains in different health facilities in Burkina Faso, so that measures could be taken to prevent their spread and treatment failures.
Key words: Enterobacteriaceae, Extended-Spectrum Beta-lactamases (ESBL), Burkina Faso.
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