virus. Bluetongue virus is a member of the genus Orbivirus in the family Reoviridae. Its genome consists of ten double-stranded (ds) RNA segments coding for seven structural proteins (VP1-VP7) and four non-structural proteins (NS1-NS3 or NS3A, and NS4). At present, 26 serotypes have been reported throughout the world. Bluetongue can be diagnosed from several kinds of samples. For virus isolation, embryonated eggs, 9 to 12 days old, at intravenous inoculation is best however, cell lines like KC line, the insect cell line C6-36 derived from Aedes spp., Baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) and African green monkey kidney (Vero) lines can be used. For antigen identification sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), serotype specific reverse transcriptase Polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Serogroup-specific RT-PCR, Real time quantitative PCR, Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis (targeting conserved genome segments), Restriction enzyme profile analysis (REPA), Molecular probes, RNA polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (RNA-PAGE) are now available in an increasing number of laboratories for the identification of Bluetongue virus (BTV). For antibody identification, it is possible to use blocking ELISA, competition ELISA, indirect ELISA, agar-gel immunodiffusion test (AGID), Complement-fixation test (CFT) and Haemagglutination inhibition test (HI), serum or virus neutralisation test (VNT/SNT), Immunofluorescence, Immunoperoxidase, and Dot immunobinding assays (DIA).
Key words: Antibody, antigen, bluetongue, bluetongue virus, diagnosis, structure, molecular technique.
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