Dermatophytes cause superficial fungal infections that pose public health problem to man and animals. Long term treatment with antifungal agents is required to control these infections. Various parts of Azadirachta indica are claimed to have significant medicinal value in treatment of infections especially ringworm. To determine the antifungal activity of the oil and fractions against dermatophytes isolated from clinical cases. Seeds of A. indica were collected, dried, grinded and extracted with hexane using soxhlet and cold maceration. Physicochemical analysis of the oil was carried out as described by Association of Official Analytical Chemists methods (AOAC, 1990). Fractionation of the oil was subjected using column chromatography and Infra-Red (I.R) analysis using spectrophotometer. Swab samples were collected from pupils in Kudan, Kaduna State with suspected cases of Tinea corporis (ringworm). The causative fungal organisms were isolated and identified by routine mycological and biochemical procedures. The antifungal activities of the extracts were evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) and diameter zones of inhibition. Hexane extract from soxhlet method of extraction showed higher diameter zone of inhibition against isolated dermatophytes (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum canis), ranging from 14.33 – 17.33 mm. The MIC and MFC values of the extract range from 3.13 to > 50% v/v and 50 to >50%v/v respectively. The oils and fractions recorded class of compounds which include alkyl, alkanes, alkenes, aliphatic esters, ketone, carboxylic acid, amide and alkyl halide. Hexane extract of seed of A. indica extracted by soxhlet and cold maceration methods had inhibitory activities against the causative agents of T. corporis (ringworm) when tested.
Key words: Dermatophytes, Azadirachta indica, antifungal, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR).
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