African Journal of
Microbiology Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Microbiol. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0808
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJMR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 5173

Full Length Research Paper

Assessment of antiplasmodial and immunomodulatory activities of endophytic fungal metabolites from Azadirachta indica A. Juss

Nonye T. Ujam
  • Nonye T. Ujam
  • Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu State, Nigeria.
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Cyril C. Adonu
  • Cyril C. Adonu
  • Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu State, Nigeria.
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Thaddeus H. Gugu
  • Thaddeus H. Gugu
  • Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka Enugu State, Nigeria.
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Restus Onwusoba
  • Restus Onwusoba
  • Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka Enugu State, Nigeria.
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Chibueze Ike
  • Chibueze Ike
  • Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.
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Raymond O. Offiah
  • Raymond O. Offiah
  • Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu, Nigeria.
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Malachy C. Chigbo
  • Malachy C. Chigbo
  • Department of Applied Biochemistry, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.
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Festus B. C. Okoye
  • Festus B. C. Okoye
  • Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.
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Charles O. Esimone
  • Charles O. Esimone
  • Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.
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  •  Received: 09 October 2020
  •  Accepted: 17 June 2021
  •  Published: 31 March 2022

Abstract

This study reported the antiplasmodial and immunomodulatory activities of extracts of endophytic fungi isolated from Azadirachta indica. The extracts were evaluated for potential in-vivo and in-vitro antiplasmodial activity using murine malaria models and microtechnique methods respectively. Immunomodulatory potentials of the extracts were assessed using cyclophosphamide-immunomyelosuppression in mice and hypersensitivity and hemagglutination reactions in rats, using sheep red blood cells (SRBC) as the antigen. The extracts inhibited the growth of Plasmodium berghei in-vivo and Plasmodium falciparum in-vitro. At 100 and 200 mg/kg oral doses, extracts of AIL1, AIL3, AIS1 and AIS2 recorded parasite inhibition of 95.62-97.87, 73.47-85.71, 83.11-98.63 and 94.31-100% respectively. In vitro inhibition of schizont maturation was concentration-dependent; extract of AIS2 at 1 mg/ml gave the highest activity (86.67%). A dose-related increase in the mean total white blood cell (WBC) and a significant p < 0.001 increase in neutrophil counts compared to the positive control was shown by the extracts at 100 and 200 mg/kg with a significant p < 0.05 increase in the hypersensitivity reaction to the SRBC antigen and an increase in the antibody titer value, to SRBC in rats. Thus, extracts of the isolated fungi exhibited immunomodulatory activity in both the innate and adaptive immune components of the immune system which correlated positively with the antiplasmodial activity.

 

Key words: Azadirachta indica, endophytes, antiplasmodial, immunomodulatory activity.