Now-a-days majority of world population rely on the plant preparations as medicines to cure diseases, as they are considered safe and as effective as allopathic preparations without any side effects. Spices are plant products having aroma, are mainly used during cooking to impart flavor and taste to the dish and also possess medicinal values. The present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of four Indian spices: clove (Syzygium aromaticum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum), turmeric (Curcuma longa), and black pepper (Piper nigrum) against Gram positive and Gram negative pathogenic bacteria viz., Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 70063) using aqueous, 75% ethanol and 75% chloroform extracts. The antibacterial activity of spices extract and spices which are used in powder form was determined by agar well diffusion method and the antimicrobial activity of antibiotics (Clindamycin, Ciprofloxacin, Gentamycin) was measured by disc diffusion method. The clove and cinnamon extracts had exhibited maximum antibacterial property against pathogens; also, turmeric had shown less antimicrobial activity, while black pepper had exhibited moderate activity. Spices (powder) had shown highest antimicrobial activity than spice extracts. Phytochemical screening was carried out on ethanol, chloroform and distilled water extracts of spices for its chemical composition. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of these spice extracts confirm the presence of various phytochemicals like alkaloids, terpanoids, flavonoids, saponins, steroids and tannins.
Key words: Antimicrobial activity, Piper nigrum, agar well diffusion method and phytochemicals.
Copyright © 2021 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0