The increased attention toward replacing chemical antimicrobials with natural remedies has led to increased studies. To prove the antimicrobial characteristics of plant extracts, their effect on infectious bacteria has to be studied in laboratory. In this study, aqueous and ethanolic extract leaves/fruits of three commonly available medicinal plants (Mentha arvensis, Carissa carandas and Calendula officinalis) individually and in combinations were tested for their antimicrobial activity against three different pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereus (MCCB-0143), Staphylococcus aureus (MCCB-0139) and Escherichia coli (MCCB-0018)) using agar disc diffusion, agar well diffusion. Among plants extracts, C. carandas fruits (Cc) and M. arvensis ethanolic extract (MaE) showed strong antimicrobial activity against E. coli (MCCB-0018). The ethanolic combination (ethanolic Calendula: Carissa: Mentha1:2:1) showed strong antimicrobial activity against B. cereus and F112 (fruits Calendula: Carissa carandas: Mentha arvensis, 1:2:1) showed significant (P < 0.05) antimicrobial activity against S. aureus (MCCB-0139). An individual and synergistic activity of ZOI ranging from 0.16-28.0 mm was active against test organism. The highest ZOI 28.0 ±1.50 was observed in Carissa fruit extracts. The study reveals that plant extracts and their combination have significant effect of antibacterial activity. The plant extract seems promising for the development of a new herbal preparation for bacterial infection.
Key words: Antimicrobial activity, Mentha arvensis, Carissa carandas, Calendula officinalis.
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