Tropical soils are highly leached, abundantly clayey and strongly acid, resulting in low mineral availability and especially phosphorus (P). The plants of this region must establish symbiotic relationships enabling them to strengthen their hydromineral nutrition. The aim of this work was to study the effect of P fertilizer application on the diversity of arbuscular mycorhizal fungi (AMF) under the rhizosphere of three Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) landraces. To attain it, plants were grown in farm under different simple superphosphate (SSP) levels (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg.ha-1 P2O5) in 2015 at Mendong and Soa districts. Experimental units were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Soil and root samples were taken from the rhizosphere of three randomly selected seeds holes per experimental unit at flowering (31 days after sowing) and fruition stages. At harvest, the roots were stored in 50% ethyl alcohol. They were stained with methyl blue and observed under an optical microscope. The soil samples allowed the trapping to be carried out in a greenhouse with sorghum as test plants. Results show that Bambara groundnut landraces were the host of several AMF species and were highly colonized with all showing hyphae, vesicles and even spores. High level of SSP (200 kg.ha-1 P2O5) significantly (p<0.001) reduced the intensity of mycorrhization as well as the diversity indices compared to the control. A density of AMF spores reaching 1930 was obtained in 100 g of trapping substrate. On the basis of morphological characteristics, 16 AMF species belonging to nine genera (Glomus, Acaulospora, Gigaspora, Racocetra, Rhizophagus, Funneliformis, Septoglomus, Diversispora and Claroideoglomous) were isolated and identified. Rhizophagus intraradices and Septoglomus constrictum were the most abundant. AMF species identified in this groundnut rhizosphere can be multiplied and used as biological fertilizer to increase its yield.
Key words: Arbuscular mycorhizal fungi (AMF) diversity, Cameroon, morphological characteristics, rhizosphere, root colonization, spore density, symbiosis, phosphate fertilization, Voandzou.
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