Resistance to a wide variety of common antibiotics is observed among clinical strains designated as extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers. These produce enzymatic proteins that effectively inactivate cephalosporins and aztreonam and are a serious global health problem that complicates treatment strategies. Many studies report a high prevalence of ESBL producers among Gram-negative bacilli. The purpose of this work was to identify resistance genes in enterobacterial strains. Gram-negative bacilli resistant to at least one third-generation cephalosporin, aztreonam or showing a synergy image between amoxicillin + clavulanic acid and a third generation cephalosporin were isolated during an antibiogram. Antibiotic resistance was detected for the following antibiotics: Ceftriaxone, Cefotaxime, Ceftazidime and Aztreonam. Classical polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyzes of Pseudomonas extended resistance (PER) and Guiana extended-spectrum (GES) β-lactamase genes were performed using specific primers in 60 ESBL-producing isolates. Among 250 strains of Gram negative bacilli collected, 60 strains (24%) showed resistance to antibiotics used. Stool samples are a major source of ESBL producers. The highest prevalence of resistant strains (35%) was observed in Escherichia coli. The GES and PER genes were simultaneously detected at a proportion of 13.33%. This study represents the first detection of PER and GES genes in multidrug-resistant enterobacteria in Burkina Faso.
Key words: Broad-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), Pseudomonas extended resistance (PER) gene, Guiana extended-spectrum (GES) gene, polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
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