The antimicrobial profile of oil extracts from Moringa oleifera leaves and seeds on orthopaedic wound pathogens was tested and compared with the antimicrobial activity of some antibiotics. The pathogens were characterized using biochemical and morphological tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done on the pathogens using paper discs diffusion method. Plasmid curing was done on the isolates that showed resistance to antibiotics and the Moringa extracts. Time of kill assay was done with modified plating technique. Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 43% of the pathogens followed by Proteus spp. (16%), Klebsiella spp. (15%), Citrobacter spp. (11%), Escherichia coli (8%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6%). Over 80% of the organisms were resistant to the tested antibiotics and their resistance were of plasmid origin. The methanolic leaf oil extract showed highest antimicrobial activity. The activity of the aqueous seed oil extract was significantly higher than the methanolic and ethanolic seed oil extracts (P > 0.05). Viable cell counts of S. aureus and Klebsiella spp. were reduced by the methanolic leaf and aqueous seed oil extracts. The antimicrobial activity of the methanolic leaf and aqueous seed oil extracts compared favourably with the reference antibiotics and can be used as alternatives for treatment of orthopaedic wound infections.
Key words: Orthopeadic, antibiotics, plant extracts, plasmid, wound, infection, antimicrobial, Moringa oleifera.
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