The aim of the research was to assess the factors fuelling Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) and its economic and clinical burden. For this purpose, a systematic review was conducted, which included an analysis of factors and economic and clinical burden of AMR. It was found that poorly treated sewage; discharges from antibiotic manufacturing plants, empirical prescribing, lack of antimicrobial stewardship, poor AMR monitoring; hospital-acquired infections and human-to-human contacts with environmental pathogens through food; and increase in global trade and travel are the factors behind the spread of AMR. Further, based on previous research, the study found a significant economic and clinical burden, caused by AMR infections. It is recommended that well-organised antimicrobial stewardship be in place, AMR monitoring, limit access to antibiotics via over the counter dispensing without prescriptions, mandatory sensitivity tests for antimicrobial prescription be considered, proper hygiene in hospitals and medicine manufacturing sites must be ensured to reduce global AMR.
Keywords: Antimicrobial Resistance, AMR, Antibiotic Resistance, Economic Burden, Clinical Burden.