Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is an arboviral a mosquito-borne with a wide animal host range zoonotic disease. Caused by RVFV a Single Stranded RNA virus.RVF is climate and environment sensitive disease its occurrence usually observed due to interactions of animal, human and environment. Diagnosis of RVF in the field can be a challenge, Virus detection and serological tests widely used for laboratory diagnosis. Recently Pen side test developed and validated. Animal Vaccination is the most competent prevention and control method. However there is no commercially available antiviral for treatment or vaccine for human usage against RVF. RVF outbreaks impose detrimental socioeconomic impacts as a real threat to livestock industry and passive effects on public health, disproportionally, affects vulnerable communities with poor resilience to economics and environmental challenges.
In this study data compiled from published literature on RVF epidemiology in the Sudan searching in Prubmed, Google scholars, Digital repository of University of Khatroum. Annual reports of Sawakin Vet Quarantine and an interview. In order to put together scare scattered epidemiological Knowledge in an update description of RVF epidemiology with focus on History and distribution, endemicity, vector and transmission risk factors and impacts of RVF on livestock export in Sudan.
In spite of the scarcity of published data on the epidemiology of RVF in sudan with an approach of One Health Concept that reading together the clinical and serological occurrences of RVF in animals and man combined with spreading of RVFV in mosquitoes in Khartoum and White Nile states there are many evidences indicate to a high frequency of RVFV activities in Sudan. The Surveillance of RVF in animals is an outbreak centered mainly during the outbreak or recent after an outbreak. There is no data of longitudinal epidemiological studies. In man many hospital centered studies were published, but to our Knowledge there is no investigation of RVF among the groups of people with high risk of exposure to RVFV such as (slaughterhouses workers, Butchers, Vets, laboratory personnel).
A break through to enhance understanding of RVF epidemiology in Sudan might be seen in Sentinel animal survey in endemic states. Improving Community participation. Study the role of animal movement on RVFV spreading. Herd immunity and animal husbandry practices in particular seasonality and synchronization of parturition. Land usage and animal density as an aftermath of extension of mechanized agriculture on expense of range land.
Keywords: Rift Valley Fever, Epidemiology; Trade, Sudan.