African Journal of
Microbiology Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Microbiol. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0808
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJMR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 5136

Full Length Research Paper

Detection of alpha toxin and enterotoxins of Clostridium perfringens isolated from minced meat by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

Gamal A. Younis
  • Gamal A. Younis
  • Department of Bacteriology, Mycology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt.
  • Google Scholar
Mona M. Radwan
  • Mona M. Radwan
  • Department of Bacteriology, Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.
  • Google Scholar
Rasha M. Elkenany
  • Rasha M. Elkenany
  • Department of Bacteriology, Mycology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt.
  • Google Scholar
Marwa H. Elderieny
  • Marwa H. Elderieny
  • Department of Bacteriology, Animal Health Research Institute, Mansoura, Egypt.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 04 May 2018
  •  Accepted: 15 June 2018
  •  Published: 21 June 2018


Abd El-rhman NG (2015). Phenotyping and genotyping of Clostridium perfringens associated with necrotic enteritis in broiler. Canal University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Department of Bacteriology, Immunology and Mycology.


Abd El-Tawab A, Ammar A, El-Hofy F, Aideia HA, Hammad EA (2016). Bacteriological and molecular studies on toxigenic Clostridium perfringens in milk and some milk products. Benha Veterinary Medical Journal 31(2):144-148.


Abd El-Tawab A, El-Hofy FI, Khater DF, Kotb MA (2015). Typing of Clostridium perfringens isolated from some meat products by using PCR. Benha Veterinary Medical Journal 29(1):118‐123.


Abo Zaied SMA (1998). Anaerobes in meat and fish products and their ability to toxin production (Meat Hygiene), Thesis, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University.


Afshari A, Jamshidi A, Razmyar J, Rad M (2015). Molecular typing of Clostridium perfringens isolated from minced meat. Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology 7:32-39.


Albini S, Brodard I, Jaussi A, Wollschlaeger N, Frey J, Miserez R, Abril C (2008). Real-time multiplex PCR assays for reliable detection of Clostridium perfringens toxin genes in animal isolates. Veterinary Microbiology 127(1-2):179-185.


Ali HEH (2009). Clostridial species and related organisms in meat and meat products (Meat Hygiene), Thesis, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University.


Alkheraije KA (2013). Some characters of C. perfringens isolated from fresh and marketed processed meat. Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (3):187-191.


British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC) (2011). Methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, Version 10.2, BSAC, Birmingham, United Kingdom.


Basyoni SR (2003). Studies on incidence of yeast in some meat products. Egyptian Journal of Veterinary Medical Association 63:205-211.


Baums CG, Schotte U, Amtsberg G, Goethe R (2004). Diagnostic multiplex PCR for toxin genotyping of C. perfringens isolates. Veterinary Microbiology 100(1-2):11-16.


Byers T, Nestle M, Mctiernan A, Doyle C, Currie-Williams A, Gansler T, Thun M (2002). American Cancer Society Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity for Cancer Prevention: Reducing the Risk of Cancer with Healthy Food Choices and Physical Activity. A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 52:92-119


Chon JW, Park JS, Hyeon JY, Park C, Song KY, Hong KW, Hwang IG, Kwak HS, Seo KH (2012). Development of Real-Time PCR for the Detection of Clostridium perfringens in Meats and Vegetables. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 22:530-534.


Duncan CL (1973).Time of enterotoxin formation and release during sporulation of Clostridium perfringens type A. Journal of Bacteriology 113:932-936.


EI-Jakee J, Ata NS, El Shabrawy MA, Abu Elnaga ASM, Hedia RH, Shawky NM, Shawky HM (2013). Characterization of Clostridium prefringens isolated from poultry. Global Veterinaria 11:88-94.


EI-Atwa, Abou El-Roos NA (2011). Incidence Clostridium perfringens in meat products at some Egyptian Governorates. International Journal of Microbiological Research 2(3):196-203.


El-melegy ASA (2015). Microbial status of meat and chicken received to university student hostel. M. V. Sc. Thesis (Meat hygiene), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University.


Emara MM (2014). Anaerobic and Aerobic microorganism in human food M. V. Sc. thesis (Bacteriology, Immunology and Mycology), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University.


Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (1992). Manuals of food quality control, Microbiological analysis. W. Andrews FAO Consultant Food and Drug Administration Washington, DC, USA.


Grass JE, Gould LH, Mahon BE (2013). Epidemiology of foodborne disease outbreaks caused by Clostridium Perfringens, United States, 1998-2010. Foodborne pathogens and Disease 10:131-136.


Guran HS, Vural A, Erkan MEJ, Lebensm V (2014). The prevalence and molecular typing of Clostridium perfringens in ground beef and sheep meats. Journal of consumer protection and food safety 9:121.


Hamoda WSAO (2012). Study on the effect of some spices and organic salts on Clostridium perfringens during cooling of raw and cooked ground beef. M. V. Sc. thesis (Bacteriology) Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University.


Hatheway CL (1990). Toxigenic clostridia. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 3:66-98.


Hayes PR (1992). Food microbiology and hygienic, 2nd Edition Elsevier Applied Science London, New York pp. 206-209.


Herrer SI (1995). Quality of fresh beef lamb pork and similar meat products. Alimentaria 265:83-85.


Johansson C, Greko B, Engstrom E, Karisson M (2004). Antimicrobial susceptibility of Swedish, Norwegian and Danish. Isolates of C. perfringens from poultry and distribution of tetracycline resistance gene. Veterinary Microbiology 99(3-4):251-257.


Johnson EA, Summanen P, Finegold SM (2007). Clostridium. In P. R. Murray (Ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology (9th ed.,). ASM Press, Washington D.C. pp. 889-910.


Juneja VK, Novak JS, Labbe RL (2010). Clostridium perfringens. In: Juneja VK, Sofos JN (Ed) pathogens and toxins in foods: challenges and Interventions, ASM press, Washington D.C. pp. 53-70.


Kamber U, Gokce I, Elmali M (2007). Clostridium perfringens and its toxins in minced meat from Kars, Turkey. Food Additives and Contaminants 24:673-678.


Kaneko I, Miyamoto K, Mimura K, Yumine N, Utsunomiya H, Akimoto S, McClane BA (2011). Detection of Enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens in meat samples by using Molecular methods. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 77(21):7526-7532.


Koneman EW, Allen SD, Janda WM, Schreckenberger PC, Winn WC (1992). Color atlas and textbook of diagnostic microbiology. 4th edn., J.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, Pa.


Labbe RG, Doyle MP (1989). Clostridium perfringens. In: Food borne bacterial pathogens, New York and Basel Marcel Decker Inc., New York. pp. 197-227.


Labbe RG, Lund BM, Baird-Parker TC, Gould GW (2000). C. perfringens. In: The microbiological safety and quality of food Vol.11 Aspen Pub. Gaithersburg, Maryland. pp. 1110-1135.


Labbe RG, Juneja VK (2006). Clostridium perfringens gastroenteritis. In: Riemann HP, Cliver DO (Ed).foodborne infections and intoxications, Academic Press, third edition. pp. 137-184.


Khan M, Nazir J, Anjum AA, Ahmad M, Nawaz M, Shabbir MZ (2015). Toxinotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens isolates from mutton, beef and chicken meat. Journal of Food Science and Technology 52(8):5323-5328


McClane BA (2007): Clostridium perfringens. 423-444.In: Doyle MP, Beuchat LR (Ed). Food Microbiology, Fundementals and Frontiers, Third edition, ASM Press, Washington D.C.


McDonel JL (1986). Toxins of Clostridium perfringens types A, B, C, D, and E In pharmacology of Bacterial toxins ed., Dorner, F. and Drews, H. pp. 477-517.Oxford:pergamon press.


Miwa N, Nishina T, Kubo S, Atsumi M, Honda H (1998). Amount of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens in meat detected by nested PCR. International Journal of Food Microbiology 42:195-200.


Mizher BM, Sadeq JN, Esmaeel JR (2016). Direct detection of Clostridium perfringens based alpha toxin gene from sheep and cattle by real time PCR techique. Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research 15(2):1-9.


Okolocha EC, Ellerbroek L (2005). The influence of acid and alkaline treatments on pathogens and shelf life of poultry meat. Food Control 16:217-225.


Razmyar J, Kalidari GA, Tolooe A, Rad M, Movassaghi AR (2014). Genotyping of Clostridium perfringens isolated from healthy and diseased ostriches (Struthio camelus). Iranian Journal of Microbiology 6(1):31-36.


Satio M (1990). Production of enterotoxin by C. perfringens derived from humans, animals, foods and the natural environment in Japan. Journal Food Protection 53:115-118.


Shaltout FA, Osman IM, Kamel EA, Abd-Alla AK (2017). Isolation of Clostridium perfringens from Meat Samples Obtained from the University Students' Hostel. EC Nutrition 9(3):142-150.


Silva ROS, Salvarani FM, Assis RA, Martins NRN, Pires PS, Lobato FCF (2009). Antimicrobial susceptibility of C. perfringens strains isolated from broiler chicken. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 40:261-263.


Singh RV, Bhilegaonkar KN, Agarwal RK (2005). Clostridium perfringens from selected meats. Journal of Food Safety 25:146-156.


Skariyachan S, Mahajanakatti AB, Biradar UB, Sharma N, Abhilash M (2010). Isolation, identification and characterization of Clostridium perfringens from cooked meat-poultry samples and in silico biomodeling of its delta enterotoxin. International journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research 4:164-172.


Smith LD, Holdeman LB (1968). The pathogenic anaerobic bacteria. 1st Ed., Charles C-Thomas Publisher, U.S.A. pp. 201-205.


Schalch B, Sperner B, Eisgruber H, Stolle A (1999). Molecular methods for the analysis of Clostridium perfringens relevant to food hygiene. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology 24(3):281-286.


Stern DH, Batty I (1975). Pathogenic Clostridia1st ed. Butter Worth. London, U.K.


Titball RW, Naylor CE, Basak AK (1999). The Clostridium perfringens-toxin. Anaerobe 5:51-64.


Wen Q, McClane BA (2004). Detection of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens type A isolate in American retail foods. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 70:2685-2691.


Wu S, Rodgers N, Choct M (2011). Real-Time PCR Assay for Clostridium perfringens in Broiler Chickens in a Challenge Model of Necrotic Enteritis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 77(3):1135-1139.


Yoo HS, Lee SU, Park KY, Park YH (1997). Molecular typing and epidemiological survey of prevalence of Clostridium perfringens types by multiplex PCR. Journal Microbiology 35(1):228-232.


Yang ZY, Shim WB, Kim KY, Chung DH (2010). Rapid Detection of Enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens in Meat Samples Using Immunomagnetic Separation Polymerase Chain Reaction (IMS−PCR). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 58(12):7135-7140.